Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Catalytic wet air oxidation of bisphenol A solution in a batch-recycle trickle-bed reactor over titanate nanotube-based catalysts

  • 1556 Accesses

  • 4 Citations


Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) is classified as an advanced oxidation process, which proved to be highly efficient for the removal of emerging organic pollutant bisphenol A (BPA) from water. In this study, BPA was successfully removed in a batch-recycle trickle-bed reactor over bare titanate nanotube-based catalysts at very short space time of 0.6 min gCAT g−1. The as-prepared titanate nanotubes, which underwent heat treatment at 600 °C, showed high activity for the removal of aqueous BPA. Liquid-phase recycling (5- or 10-fold recycle) enabled complete BPA conversion already at 200 °C, together with high conversion of total organic carbon (TOC), i.e., 73 and 98 %, respectively. The catalyst was chemically stable in the given range of operating conditions for 189 h on stream.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5


  1. Andreozzi R, Caprio V, Insola A, Marotta R (1999) Advanced oxidation processes (AOP) for water purification and recovery. Catal Today 53:51–69

  2. Besson M, Beziat JC, Blanc B, Durecu S, Gallezot P (2000) Treatment of aqueous solutions of organic pollutants by heterogeneous catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO). Stud Surf Sci Catal 130:1553–1558

  3. Bielanski A, Haber J (1991) Oxygen in catalysis. M. Dekker, New York

  4. Bistan M, Tišler T, Pintar A (2012) Catalytic and photocatalytic oxidation of aqueous bisphenol A solutions: removal, toxicity, and estrogenicity. Ind Eng Chem Res 51:8826–8834

  5. Boelhouwer JG (2001) Nonsteady operation of trickle bed reactors (hydrodynamics, mass and heat transfer). Technishe Universiteit Eindhoven, Nederland

  6. Chen P, Linden KG, Hinton DE, Kashiwada S, Rosenfeldt EJ, Kullman SW (2006) Biological assessment of bisphenol A degradation in water following direct photolysis and UV advanced oxidation. Chemosphere 65:1094–1102

  7. Clara M, Strenn B, Saracevic E, Kreuzinger N (2004) Adsorption of bisphenol-A, 17 beta-estradiole and 17 alpha-ethinylestradiole to sewage sludge. Chemosphere 56:843–851

  8. Comotti M, Wen-Cui L, Spliethoff B, Schüth F (2006) Support effect in high activity gold catalysts for CO oxidation. J Am Chem Soc 128:917–924

  9. Ding ZY, Frisch MA, Li L, Gloyna EF (1996) Catalytic oxidation in supercritical water. Ind Eng Chem Res 35:3257–3279

  10. Erjavec B, Kaplan R, Djinović P, Pintar A (2013a) Catalytic wet air oxidation of bisphenol A model solution in a trickle-bed reactor over titanate nanotube-based catalysts. Appl Catal B: Environ 132–133:342–352

  11. Erjavec B, Kaplan R, Tišler T, Pintar A (2013b) Titanate nanotubes as a novel catalyst for removal of toxicity and estrogenicity of bisphenol A in the CWAO process. Ind Eng Chem Res 52:12559–12566

  12. Hamzah N, Nordin NM, Nadziri AHN, Nik YA, Kassim MB, Yarmo MA (2012) Enhanced activity of Ru/TiO2 catalyst using bisupport, betonite-TiO2 for hydrogenolysis of glycerol in aqueous media. Appl Catal A: Gen 419–420:133–141

  13. Hanaor DA, Sorrell CC (2011) Rewiew of the anatase to rutile phase transformation. J Mater Sci 46:855–874

  14. Ho KY, Yeung KL (2007) Properties of TiO2 support and the performance of Au/TiO2 catalyst for CO oxidation reaction. Gold Bull 40:15–30

  15. Kang JH, Aasi D, Katayama Y (2007) Bisphenol A in the aquatic environment and its endocrine-disruptive effects on aquatic organisms. Crit Rev Toxicol 37:607–625

  16. Levec J, Pintar A (2007) Catalytic wet-air processes: a review. Catal Today 124:172–184

  17. Luck F (1999) Wet air oxidation: past, present and future. Catal Today 53:81–91

  18. Mezohegyi G, Erjavec B, Kaplan R, Pintar A (2013) Removal of bisphenol A and its oxidation products from aqueous solutions by sequential catalytic wet air oxidation and biodegradation. Ind Eng Chem Res 52:9301–9307

  19. Nigam KDP, Larachi F (2005) Process intensification in trickle-bed reactors. Chem Eng Sci 60:5880–5894

  20. Parsons S (2004) Advanced oxidation processes for water and wastewater treatment. IWA Publishing, New York

  21. Perkas N, Zhong Z, Chen L, Besson M, Gedanken A (2005) Sonochemically prepared high dispersed Ru/TiO2 mesoporous catalyst for partial oxidation of methane to syngas. Catal Lett 103:9–14

  22. Pintar A, Berčič G, Levec J (1997) Catalytic liquid-phase oxidation of aqueous phenol solutions in a trickle bed reactor. Chem Eng Sci 52:4143–4153

  23. Pintar A, Besson M, Gallezot P (2001a) Catalytic wet air oxidation of Kraft bleaching plant effluents in the presence of titania and zirconia supported ruthenium. Appl Catal B: Environ 30:123–139

  24. Pintar A, Besson M, Gallezot P (2001b) Catalytic wet air oxidation of Kraft bleaching plant effluents in a trickle bed reactor over Ru/TiO2 catalyst. Appl Catal B: Environ 31:275–290

  25. Pintar A, Batista J, Tišler T (2008) Catalytic-wet air oxidation of aqueous solutions of formic acid, acetic acid and phenol in a continuous-flow trickle-bed reactor over Ru/TiO2 catalysts. Appl Catal B: Environ 84:30–41

  26. Roy S, Vashishtha M, Saroha AK (2010) Catalytic wet air oxidation of oxalic acid using platinum catalyst in bubble column reactor. J Eng Sci Tech Rev 3:95–107

  27. Staples CA, Dorn PB, Klecka GM, O’Block ST (1998) A review of the environmental fate, effects, and exposures of bisphenol A. Chemosphere 36:2149–2173

  28. Yamamoto T, Yasuhara A, Shiraishi H, Nakasugi O (2001) Bisphenol A in hazardous waste landfill leachates. Chemosphere 42:415–418

Download references


The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Ministry of Education, Science and Sport of the Republic of Slovenia through Research program no. P2-0150.

Author information

Correspondence to Albin Pintar.

Additional information

Responsible editor: Angeles Blanco

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kaplan, R., Erjavec, B., Senila, M. et al. Catalytic wet air oxidation of bisphenol A solution in a batch-recycle trickle-bed reactor over titanate nanotube-based catalysts. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21, 11313–11319 (2014).

Download citation


  • Batch-recycle reactor
  • Bisphenol A
  • Catalytic wet air oxidation
  • Titanate nanotubes
  • TiO2
  • Trickle-bed reactor
  • Wastewater treatment