Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 21, Issue 15, pp 9344–9355 | Cite as

Bisphenol A exposure is not associated with area-level socioeconomic index in Australian children using pooled urine samples

  • AL Heffernan
  • PD Sly
  • LML Toms
  • P Hobson
  • JF Mueller
Research Article

Abstract

Bisphenol A (BPA) is used extensively in food-contact materials and has been detected routinely in populations worldwide; this exposure has been linked to a range of negative health outcomes in humans. There is some evidence of an association between BPA and different socioeconomic variables which may be the result of different dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of the association between BPA and socioeconomic status in Australian children using pooled urine specimens and an area-level socioeconomic index. Surplus pathology urine specimens collected from children aged 0–15 years in Queensland, Australia, as samples of convenience (n = 469), were pooled by age, sex and area-level socioeconomic index (n = 67 pools) and analysed for total BPA using online solid-phase extraction LC-MS/MS. Concentration ranged from 1.08 to 27.4 ng/ml with geometric mean 2.57 ng/ml, and geometric mean exposure was estimated as 70.3 ng/kg d-1. Neither BPA concentration nor excretion was associated with age or sex, and the authors found no evidence of an association with socioeconomic status. These results suggest that BPA exposure is not associated with socioeconomic status in the Australian population due to relatively homogenous exposures in Australia, or that the socioeconomic gradient is relatively slight in Australia compared with other OECD countries.

Keywords

Human biomonitoring Urine Bisphenol A BPA Socioeconomic status Socioeconomic position Children 

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • AL Heffernan
    • 1
  • PD Sly
    • 2
  • LML Toms
    • 3
  • P Hobson
    • 4
  • JF Mueller
    • 1
  1. 1.National Research Centre for Environmental ToxicologyUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Children’s Health and Environment Program, Queensland Children’s Medical Research InstituteUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  3. 3.School of Clinical Sciences and Institute of Health and Biomedical InnovationQueensland University of TechnologyBrisbaneAustralia
  4. 4.Sullivan Nicolaides PathologyBrisbaneAustralia

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