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Efficiency of a cleanup technology to remove mercury from natural waters by means of rice husk biowaste: ecotoxicological and chemical approach

Abstract

In the present work, the efficiency of rice husk to remove Hg(II) from river waters spiked with realistic environmental concentrations of this metal (μg L−1 range) was evaluated. The residual levels of Hg(II) obtained after the remediation process were compared with the guideline values for effluents discharges and water for human consumption, and the ecotoxicological effects using organisms of different trophic levels were assessed. The rice husk sorbent proved to be useful in decreasing Hg(II) contamination in river waters, by reducing the levels of Hg(II) to values of ca. 8.0 and 34 μg L−1, for an Hg(II) initial concentration of 50 and 500 μg L−1, respectively. The remediation process with rice husk biowaste was extremely efficient in river waters spiked with lower levels of Hg(II), being able to eliminate the toxicity to the exposed organisms algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus and ensure the total survival of Daphnia magna species. For concentrations of Hg(II) tenfold higher (500 μg L−1), the remediation process was not adequate in the detoxification process, still, the rice husk material was able to reduce considerably the toxicity to the bacteria Vibrio fischeri, algae P. subcapitata and rotifer B. calyciflorus, whose responses where fully inhibited during its exposure to the non-remediated river water. The use of a battery of bioassays with organisms from different trophic levels and whose sensitivity revealed to be different and dependent on the levels of Hg(II) contamination proved to be much more accurate in predicting the ecotoxicological hazard assessment of the detoxification process by means of rice husk biowaste.

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Acknowledgments

Thanks are due to the University of Aveiro/CESAM and Fundacão para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT). Luciana Rocha and Cláudia Lopes acknowledge their post-doc grants to FCT (SFRH/BPD/47166/2008 and SFRH/BPD/45156/2008). Bruno Henriques acknowledge his PhD grant to FCT (SFRH/BD/62435/2009).

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Correspondence to Luciana S. Rocha.

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Responsible editor: Céline Guéguen

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Rocha, L.S., Lopes, I., Lopes, C.B. et al. Efficiency of a cleanup technology to remove mercury from natural waters by means of rice husk biowaste: ecotoxicological and chemical approach. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21, 8146–8156 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-2753-7

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Keywords

  • Metals
  • Natural waters
  • Ecotoxicity
  • Rice husk
  • Biosorption
  • Remediation