Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 1653–1661 | Cite as

Selected current-use pesticides (CUPs) in coastal and offshore sediments of Bohai and Yellow seas

  • Guangcai Zhong
  • Jianhui Tang
  • Zhiyong Xie
  • Wenying Mi
  • Yingjun Chen
  • Axel Möller
  • Renate Sturm
  • Gan Zhang
  • Ralf Ebinghaus
Developments and Applications of Environmental Specimen Banks for Monitoring Emerging Contaminants

Abstract

China is one of the largest producers, consumers, and traders for pesticides in the world. Currently, there are more than 600 pesticide-active substances registered in China, whereas few studies were conducted to improve our understanding of the occurrence and environmental impact of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in China’s environment. In this work, 72 surface sediment samples were taken from the coastal and offshore of Bohai and Yellow seas and were analyzed for six CUPs (trifluralin, dacthal, quintozene, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, and dicofol) and two metabolites (pentachloroanisole and endosulfan sulfate). Sediment samples were categorized as estuarine or near-shore sediments (Laizhou Bay, Taozi Bay, Sishili Bay, and Jiaozhou Bay) and offshore sediments. Trifluralin, α-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, chlorpyrifos, dicofol, and pentachloroanisole were detected in more than 60 % of the samples. Dicofol was the predominant compound with concentrations mostly higher than 100 pg/g dry weight (dw) with the highest concentration of 18,000 pg/g dw. Concentrations of other compounds were mainly below 100 pg/g dw. CUP levels were much lower than the sediment screening benchmark calculated. The highest levels of α-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, trifluralin, and chlorpyrifos existed at Laizhou Bay, whereas pentachloroanisole and dicofol had highest mean concentrations at Jiaozhou Bay. Generally, no correlation between pesticide concentrations and total organic carbon was observed either for offshore samples or for near-shore samples.

Keywords

Current-use pesticides Bohai Sea Yellow Sea Sediment 

Notes

Acknowledgment

This study was financially supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KZCX2-EW-QN210, KZZD-EW-14, and YZ201161) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (40933048 and 41073064). We are grateful for the field assistance from the crew of Research Vessel Dongfanghong 2 of the Ocean University of China.

Supplementary material

11356_2014_2648_MOESM1_ESM.doc (179 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 179 kb)

References

  1. Antonious GF, Byers ME, Snyder JC (1998) Residues and fate of endosulfan on field-grown pepper and tomato. Pestic Sci 54(1):61–67. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1096-9063(199809)54:1<61::aid-ps780>3.0.co;2-m CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bidleman T (1999) Atmospheric transport and air-surface exchange of pesticides. Water Air Soil Pollut 115(1–4):115–166. doi: 10.1023/A:1005249305515 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bidleman TF, McConnell LL (1995) A review of field experiments to determine air-water gas exchange of persistent organic pollutants. Sci Total Environ 159(2–3):101–117. doi: 10.1016/0048-9697(95)04255-Y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Breivik K, Alcock R, Li YF, Bailey RE, Fiedler H, Pacyna JM (2004) Primary sources of selected POPs: regional and global scale emission inventories. Environ Pollut 128(1–2):3–16. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2003.08.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brun GL, MacDonald RM, Verge J, Aube J (2008) Long-term atmospheric deposition of current-use and banned pesticides in Atlantic Canada; 1980–2000. Chemosphere 71(2):314–327. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.09.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carvalho FP, Villeneuve JP, Cattini C, Rendon J, de Oliveira JM (2009a) Pesticide and PCB residues in the aquatic ecosystems of Laguna de Terminos, a protected area of the coast of Campeche, Mexico. Chemosphere 74(7):988–995. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.09.092 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carvalho PN, Rodrigues PNR, Basto MCP, Vasconcelos MTSD (2009b) Organochlorine pesticides levels in Portuguese coastal areas. Chemosphere 75(5):595–600. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.01.060 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cetin B, Ozer S, Sofuoglu A, Odabasi M (2006) Determination of Henry’s law constants of organochlorine pesticides in deionized and saline water as a function of temperature. Atmos Environ 40(24):4538–4546. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.04.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. China Pesticide Information Network (2012) http://www.chinapesticide.gov.cn/. Accessed June 4
  10. Dachs J, Bayona JM, Fowler SW, Miquel JC, Albaiges J (1996) Vertical fluxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine compounds in the western Alboran Sea (southwestern Mediterranean). Mar Chem 52(1):75–86. doi: 10.1016/0304-4203(95)00084-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dachs J, Lohmann R, Ockenden WA, Mejanelle L, Eisenreich SJ, Jones KC (2002) Oceanic biogeochemical controls on global dynamics of persistent organic pollutants. Environ Sci Technol 36(20):4229–4237. doi: 10.1021/Es025724k CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. de Mora S, Fowler SW, Tolosa I, Villeneuve JP, Cattini C (2005) Chlorinated hydrocarbons in marine biota and coastal sediments from the Gulf and Gulf of Oman. Mar Pollut Bull 50(8):835–849. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2005.02.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DiPinto LM (1996) Trophic transfer of a sediment-associated organophosphate pesticide from meiobenthos to bottom feeding fish. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 30(4):459–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Di Toro DM, Zarba CS, Hansen DJ, Berry WJ, Swartz RC, Cowan CE, Pavlou SP, Allen HE, Thomas NA, Paquin PR (1991) Technical basis for establishing sediment quality criteria for nonionic organic chemicals using equilibrium partitioning. Environ Toxicol Chem 10:1541–1583Google Scholar
  15. Gomez S, Gorri D, Irabien A (2011) Organochlorine pesticide residues in sediments from coastal environment of Cantabria (northern Spain) and evaluation of the Atlantic Ocean. Environ Monit Assess 176(1-4):385–401. doi: 10.1007/s10661-010-1591-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. He HW (2008) The use of OP and development of new organophosphorus agrochemicals in China. Phosphorus, Sulfur Silicon Relat Elem 183(2–3):266–279. doi: 10.1080/10426500701734232 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Herrmann M (2002) Preliminary risk profile of endosulfan. Umweltbundesamt, Berlin GermanyGoogle Scholar
  18. Hoferkamp L, Hermanson MH, Muir DCG (2010) Current use pesticides in Arctic media; 2000–2007. Sci Total Environ 408(15):2985–2994. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.11.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hu L, Zhang G, Zheng B, Qin Y, Lin T, Guo Z (2009) Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface sediments of the Bohai Sea, China. Chemosphere 77(5):663–672. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.07.070 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hung CC, Gong GC, Jiann KT, Yeager KM, Santschi PH, Wade TL, Sericano JL, Hsieh HL (2006) Relationship between carbonaceous materials and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the sediments of the Danshui River and adjacent coastal areas, Taiwan. Chemosphere 65(9):1452–1461. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.04.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jia HL, Li YF, Wang DG, Cai DJ, Yang M, Ma JM, Hu JX (2009) Endosulfan in China 1-gridded usage inventories. Environ Sci Pollut R 16(3):295–301. doi: 10.1007/s11356-008-0042-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kuang ZH, McConnell LL, Torrents A, Meritt D, Tobash S (2003) Atmospheric deposition of pesticides to an agricultural watershed of the Chesapeake Bay. J Environ Qual 32(5):1611–1622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lee KT, Tanabe S, Koh CH (2001) Distribution of organochlorine pesticides in sediments from Kyeonggi Bay and nearby areas, Korea. Environ Pollut 114(2):207–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Leonard AW, Hyne RV, Lim RP, Leigh KA, Le J, Beckett R (2001) Fate and toxicity of endosulfan in Namoi River water and bottom sediment. J Environ Qual 30(3):750–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lin T, Hu L, Shi X, Li Y, Guo Z, Zhang G (2012) Distribution and sources of organochlorine pesticides in sediments of the coastal East China Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 64(8):1549–1555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Liu M, Yang Y, Hou L, Xu S, Ou D, Zhang B, Liu Q (2003) Chlorinated organic contaminants in surface sediments from the Yangtze Estuary and nearby coastal areas, China. Mar Pollut Bull 46(5):672–676. doi: 10.1016/S0025-326x(03)000500-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lohmann R, Breivik K, Dachs J, Muir D (2007) Global fate of POPs: current and future research directions. Environ Pollut 150(1):150–165. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2007.06.051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mehler WT, Li HZ, Lydy MJ, You J (2011) Identifying the causes of sediment-associated toxicity in urban waterways of the Pearl River Delta, China. Environ Sci Technol 45(5):1812–1819. doi: 10.1021/Es103552d CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. MOA (2011) Announcement No. 1586. Ministry of Agriculture of the People’s Republic of China. http://www.moa.gov.cn/zwllm/tzgg/gg/201107/t20110705_2045813.htm. Accessed November 21 2013
  30. Nowell LH, Capel PD, Dileanis PD (1999) Pesticides in stream sediment and aquatic biota—distribution, trends and governing factors. CRC, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Peck AM, Hornbuckle KC (2005) Gas-phase concentrations of current-use pesticides in Iowa. Environ Sci Technol 39(9):2952–2959. doi: 10.1021/es0486418 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Peterson SM, Batley GE (1993) The fate of endosulfan in aquatic ecosystems. Environ Pollut 82(2):143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Project Document for China Dicofol Project (2008). United Nations Development ProgrammeGoogle Scholar
  34. Qiu XH, Zhu T, Yao B, Hu JX, Hu SW (2005) Contribution of dicofol to the current DDT pollution in China. Environ Sci Technol 39(12):4385–4390. doi: 10.1021/Es050342a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Reynoldson TB (1987) Interactions between sediment contaminants and benthic organisms. Hydrobiologia 149:53–66. doi: 10.1007/bf00048646 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schmidt WF, Hapeman CJ, Fettinger JC, Rice CP, Bilboulian S (1997) Structure and asymmetry in the isomeric conversion of beta- to alpha-endosulfan. J Agric Food Chem 45(4):1023–1026. doi: 10.1021/jf970020t CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shu F, Zhao Q (2013) Overview of China pesticide market on 2012 and its perspective for 2013. China Plant Protection 33(2):4Google Scholar
  38. Staudinger J, Roberts PV (2001) A critical compilation of Henry’s law constant temperature dependence relations for organic compounds in dilute aqueous solutions. Chemosphere 44(4):561–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tan L, He MC, Men B, Lin CY (2009) Distribution and sources of organochlorine pesticides in water and sediments from Daliao River estuary of Liaodong Bay, Bohai Sea (China). Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 84(1):119–127. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2009.06.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. UNEP (2013) The new POPs under the Stockholm Convention. Stockholm Convention. http://chm.pops.int/Implementation/NewPOPs/ThenewPOPs/tabid/672/Default.aspx. Accessed November 21 2013
  41. USEPA (2011) Pesticides industry sales and usage: 2006 and 2007 Market Estimates.Google Scholar
  42. USEPA (2012) Estimation Programs Interface Suite™ for Microsoft® Windows, v 4.00. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  43. Walse SS, Shimizu KD, Ferry JL (2002) Surface-catalyzed transformations of aqueous endosulfan. Environ Sci Technol 36(22):4846–4853. doi: 10.1021/es0256257 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Walse SS, Scott GI, Ferry JL (2003) Stereoselective degradation of aqueous endosulfan in modular estuarine mesocosms: formation of endosulfan gamma-hydroxycarboxylate. J Environ Monit 5(3):373–379. doi: 10.1039/b212165d CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wang G, Lu YL, Han JY, Luo W, Shi YJ, Wang TY, Sun YM (2010) Hexachlorobenzene sources, levels and human exposure in the environment of China. Environ Int 36(1):122–130. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2009.08.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wang JZ, Li HZ, You J (2012a) Distribution and toxicity of current-use insecticides in sediment of a lake receiving waters from areas in transition to urbanization. Environ Pollut 161:128–133. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.10.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wang YY, Li FG, Yuan SK (2012b) Brief introduction of domestic and oversea registration and application of quintozene. Agrochemicals 51(1):3Google Scholar
  48. Wania F, Haugen J-E, Lei YD, Mackay D (1998) Temperature dependence of atmospheric concentrations of semivolatile organic compounds. Environ Sci Technol 32(8):1013–1021. doi: 10.1021/es970856c CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Weber J, Halsall CJ, Muir D, Teixeira C, Small J, Solomon K, Hermanson M, Hung H, Bidleman T (2010) Endosulfan, a global pesticide: a review of its fate in the environment and occurrence in the Arctic. Sci Total Environ 408(15):2966–2984. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.10.077 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Xue ND, Xu XB, Jin ZL (2005) Screening 31 endocrine-disrupting pesticides in water and surface sediment samples from Beijing Guanting reservoir. Chemosphere 61(11):1594–1606. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.04.091 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Yang RQ, Jiang GB, Zhou QF, Yuan CG, Shi JB (2005) Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides (HCH and DDT) in sediments collected from East China Sea. Environ Int 31(6):799–804. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2005.05.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yang XL, Wang SS, Bian YR, Chen F, Yu GF, Gu CG, Jiang X (2008) Dicofol application resulted in high DDTs residue in cotton fields from northern Jiangsu province, China. J Hazard Mater 150(1):92–98. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.04.076 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yusa V, Coscolla C, Colin P, Yahyaoui A, Petrique O, Mellouki A, Pastor A (2010) Occurrence of currently used pesticides in ambient air of Centre Region (France). Atmos Environ 44(32):3915–3925. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.07.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zhang Z, Dai M, Hong H, Zhou JL, Yu G (2002) Dissolved insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Pearl River Estuary and South China Sea. J Environ Monit 4(6):922–928. doi: 10.1039/B206891p CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zhang P, Song JM, Liu ZG, Zheng GX, Zhang NX, He ZP (2007) PCBs and its coupling with eco-environments in Southern Yellow Sea surface sediments. Mar Pollut Bull 54(8):1105–1115. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2007.05.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhang P, Song JM, Yuan HM (2009) Persistent organic pollutant residues in the sediments and mollusks from the Bohai Sea coastal areas, North China: an overview. Environ Int 35(3):632–646. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2008.09.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhong GC, Tang JH, Zhao Z, Pan XH, Chen YJ, Li J, Zhang G (2011) Organochlorine pesticides in sediments of Laizhou Bay and its adjacent rivers, North China. Mar Pollut Bull 62(11):2543–2547. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.08.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhong G, Xie Z, Cai M, Moller A, Sturm R, Tang J, Zhang G, He J, Ebinghaus R (2012a) Distribution and air-sea exchange of current-use pesticides (CUPs) from East Asia to the high Arctic Ocean. Environ Sci Technol 46(1):259–267. doi: 10.1021/es202655k CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zhong GC, Xie ZY, Moller A, Halsall C, Caba A, Sturm R, Tang JH, Zhang G, Ebinghaus R (2012b) Currently used pesticides, hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorocyclohexanes in the air and seawater of the German Bight (North Sea). Environmental Chemistry 9(4):405–414. doi: 10.1071/En12065 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zhong GC, Tang JH, Xie ZY, Moller A, Zhao Z, Sturm R, Chen YJ, Tian CG, Pan XH, Qin W, Zhang G, Ebinghaus R (2014) Selected current-use and historic-use pesticides in air and seawater of the Bohai and Yellow Seas, China. Journal of Geophysical Research: under revisionGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guangcai Zhong
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jianhui Tang
    • 1
  • Zhiyong Xie
    • 2
  • Wenying Mi
    • 2
  • Yingjun Chen
    • 1
  • Axel Möller
    • 2
    • 4
  • Renate Sturm
    • 2
  • Gan Zhang
    • 3
  • Ralf Ebinghaus
    • 2
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone ResearchChinese Academy of SciencesYantaiChina
  2. 2.Institute of Coastal ResearchHelmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal ResearchGeesthachtGermany
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of GeochemistryChinese Academy of SciencesGuangzhouChina
  4. 4.GBA Gesellschaft für Bioanalytik mbHHamburgGermany

Personalised recommendations