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Effects of the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate on the growth of wheat seedlings

Abstract

Ionic liquids (ILs) are called "green" solvents, which are due to their unique physicochemical properties and potential applications in various areas. However, the toxicity of ILs has attracted increasing attention from scientific researchers. The present paper studied the toxic effects of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C8mim]PF6) on wheat seedlings at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 mg l−1 on days 7, 10 and 13. The present results showed that the growth of wheat seedlings was seriously inhibited when the concentration was higher than 2 mg l−1 and the inhibitory effect enhanced with increasing concentration and time. The EC50 values for germination, shoot length, root length and dry weight were 11.104, 5.187, 4.380 and 6.292 mg l−1, respectively. [C8mim]PF6 could cause an increase in the production of ROS, which led to the oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, these toxic effects on wheat seedlings were irreversible.

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Acknowledgments

The present study was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China [Nos. 21277083, 41071164, 41001152 and 21377075] and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education [20113702110007]

Author information

Correspondence to Lusheng Zhu or Jinhua Wang.

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Responsible editor: Elena Maestri

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Liu, T., Zhu, L., Xie, H. et al. Effects of the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate on the growth of wheat seedlings. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21, 3936–3945 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-2348-8

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Keywords

  • Plant
  • Antioxidase system
  • Lipid peroxidation
  • Superoxide anion
  • Proline
  • EC50