Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 2907–2917 | Cite as

Sources of polycyclic hydrocarbons and pesticides in soluble fraction of deposition samples in Kocaeli, Turkey

  • Burcu Binici
  • Serpil Yenisoy-Karakaş
  • Mine Bilsel
  • Nilüfer Durmaz-Hilmioğlu
Research Article

Abstract

A wet–dry deposition sampler was located at The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey-National Metrology Institute (TUBITAK-UME) station, and a bulk deposition sampler was placed at the Kadıllı village to determine the atmospheric deposition flux of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides (organochlorine and organophosphorus) in soluble fraction of samples in Kocaeli, Turkey. The 28 samples for each wet, dry, and total deposition were collected weekly from March 2006 to March 2007. Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze the samples which were prepared by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) method. The sum of volume weighted mean of deposition fluxes was obtained as 7.43 μg m−2 day−1 for wet deposition, 0.28 μg m−2 day−1 for dry deposition and 0.54 μg m−2 day−1 for bulk deposition samples for PAHs and 9.88 μg m−2 day−1 for wet deposition, 4.49 μg m−2 day−1 for dry deposition, and 3.29 μg m−2 day−1 for bulk deposition samples for pesticides. While benzo(a)anthracene had the highest fluxes among PAH compounds for all types of depositions, guthion and phosphamidon had the highest deposition flux compared with the other pesticides. Benzo(ghi)perylene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene, and acenaphthene were not detected in any of the samples. Beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, and endrin aldehyde were the only compounds among 18 organochlorine pesticides to be detected in all deposition samples. The main sources of pesticides were the high number of greenhouses around the sampling stations. However, all of the organophosphorus pesticides were detected in all deposition samples. The pollution sources were identified as coal and natural gas combustion, petrogenic sources, and traffic for TUBITAK-UME station whereas coal and natural gas combustion and traffic were the main sources for Kadıllı station by considering the results of factor analysis, ratios, and wind sector analysis.

Keywords

PAH Pesticide Factor analysis Atmospheric deposition Industrial/urban area-suburban area 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Ramazan Yakar, agricultural engineer, for his help during the sampling in Kadıllı and TUBITAK-UME for supporting the research project.

Supplementary material

11356_2013_2239_MOESM1_ESM.docx (61 kb)
ESM 1(DOCX 60 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Burcu Binici
    • 1
  • Serpil Yenisoy-Karakaş
    • 2
  • Mine Bilsel
    • 1
  • Nilüfer Durmaz-Hilmioğlu
    • 3
  1. 1.TUBITAK UME (National Metrology Institute)Gebze-KocaeliTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Science and Art, Department of ChemistryUniversity of Abant Izzet BaysalBoluTurkey
  3. 3.Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of KocaeliKocaeliTurkey

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