Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 268–298 | Cite as

Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control—a review

  • Amit Bhatnagar
  • Fabio Kaczala
  • William Hogland
  • Marcia Marques
  • Christakis A. Paraskeva
  • Vagelis G. Papadakis
  • Mika Sillanpää
Review Article

Abstract

The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5 % of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78 % between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

Keywords

Olive mill Solid waste products Valorization Adsorbents Water treatment 

References

  1. Abu-El-Sha'r WY, Gharaibeh SH (1999) Manufacturing and environmental applications of granular activated carbon from processed solid residue of olive mill products (JEFT). Toxicol Environ Chem 68:43–52Google Scholar
  2. Ahmad T, Danish M, Rafatullah M, Ghazali A, Sulaiman O, Hashim R, Ibrahim M (2012) The use of date palm as a potential adsorbent for wastewater treatment: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 19:1464–1484Google Scholar
  3. Aksas H, Babakhoya N, Babaci H, Feggas R, Louhab K (2012) Adsorption of chromium ions from aqueous solution using mixed sorbents prepared from olive stone and date pit. Asian J Chem 24:4991–4994Google Scholar
  4. Al-Anber ZA, Al-Anber MAS (2008) Thermodynamics and kinetic studies of iron(III) adsorption by olive cake in a batch system. J Mex Chem Soc 52:108–115Google Scholar
  5. Al-Anber ZA, Matouq MAD (2008) Batch adsorption of cadmium ions from aqueous solution by means of olive cake. J Hazard Mater 151:194–201Google Scholar
  6. Al-Asheh S, Banat F (2001) Adsorption of zinc and copper ions by the solid waste of the olive oil industry. Adsorpt Sci Technol 19:117–129Google Scholar
  7. Alaya MN, Hourieh MA, Youssef AM, El S, El-Sejariah F (2000) Adsorption properties of activated carbons prepared from olive stones by chemical and physical activation. Adsorpt Sci Technol 18:27–42Google Scholar
  8. Amar B, Salem K, Hocine D, Chadia I, Juan MJ (2011) Study and characterization of composites materials based on polypropylene loaded with olive husk flour. J Appl Polym Sci 122:1382–1394Google Scholar
  9. Arvanitoyannis IS, Kassaveti A, Stefanatos S (2007) Olive oil waste treatment: a comparative and critical presentation of methods, advantages & disadvantages. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 47:187–229Google Scholar
  10. Attia AA, Khedr SA, Elkholy SA (2010) Adsorption of chromium ion (VI) by acid activated carbon. Braz J Chem Eng 27:183–193Google Scholar
  11. Ayrilmis N, Buyuksari U (2010) Utilization of olive mill sludge in the manufacture of fiberboard. BioResources 5:1859–1867Google Scholar
  12. Azbar N, Bayram A, Filibeli A, Muezzinoglu A, Sengul F, Ozer A (2004) A review of waste management options in olive oil production. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 34:209–247Google Scholar
  13. Aziz A, Elandaloussi EH, Belhalfaoui B, Ouali MS, De Ménorval LC (2009a) Efficiency of succinylated-olive stone biosorbent on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 73:192–198Google Scholar
  14. Aziz A, Ouali MS, Elandaloussi EH, De Menorval LC, Lindheimer M (2009b) Chemically modified olive stone: a low-cost sorbent for heavy metals and basic dyes removal from aqueous solutions. J Hazard Mater 163:441–447Google Scholar
  15. Babakhouya N, Aksas H, Boughrara S, Louhab K (2010a) Adsorption of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution using mixed sorbents prepared from olive stone and date pit. J Appl Sci 10:2316–2321Google Scholar
  16. Babakhouya N, Boughrara S, Abad F (2010b) Kinetics and thermodynamics of Cd(II) ions sorption on mixed sorbents prepared from olive stone and date pit from aqueous solution. Am J Environ Sci 6:470–476Google Scholar
  17. Baçaoui A, Yaacoubi A, Dahbi A, Bennouna C, Luu RPT, Maldonado-Hodar FJ, Rivera-Utrilla J, Moreno-Castilla C (2001) Optimization of conditions for the preparation of activated carbons from olive-waste cakes. Carbon 39:425–432Google Scholar
  18. Baccar R, Bouzid J, Feki M, Montiel A (2009) Preparation of activated carbon from Tunisian olive-waste cakes and its application for adsorption of heavy metal ions. J Hazard Mater 162:1522–1529Google Scholar
  19. Baccar R, Blánquez P, Bouzid J, Feki M, Sarrà M (2010) Equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetic studies on adsorption of commercial dye by activated carbon derived from olive-waste cakes. Chem Eng J 165:457–464Google Scholar
  20. Baccar R, Sarrà M, Bouzid J, Feki M, Blánquez P (2012) Removal of pharmaceutical compounds by activated carbon prepared from agricultural by-product. Chem Eng J 211–212:310–317Google Scholar
  21. Baccar R, Blánquez P, Bouzid J, Feki M, Attiya H, Sarrà M (2013) Modeling of adsorption isotherms and kinetics of a tannery dye onto an activated carbon prepared from an agricultural by-product. Fuel Process Technol 106:408–415Google Scholar
  22. Banat F, Al-Asheh S, Al-Ahmad R, Bni-Khalid F (2007) Bench-scale and packed bed sorption of methylene blue using treated olive pomace and charcoal. Bioresour Technol 98:3017–3025Google Scholar
  23. Berrios M, Martín MÁ, Martín A (2012) Treatment of pollutants in wastewater: adsorption of methylene blue onto olive-based activated carbon. J Ind Eng Chem 18:780–784Google Scholar
  24. Bhatnagar A (ed.) (2012) Application of adsorbents for water pollution control. Bentham Sci Pub, Sharjah, UAEGoogle Scholar
  25. Bhatnagar A, Sillanpää M (2009) Applications of chitin- and chitosan-derivatives for the detoxification of water and wastewater—a short review. Adv Colloid Interf Sci 152:26–38Google Scholar
  26. Bhatnagar A, Sillanpää M (2010) Utilization of agro-industrial and municipal waste materials as potential adsorbents for water treatment—a review. Chem Eng J 157:277–296Google Scholar
  27. Bhatnagar A, Vilar VJP, Botelho CMS, Boaventura RAR (2010) Coconut-based biosorbents for water treatment—a review of the recent literature. Adv Colloid Interf Sci 160:1–15Google Scholar
  28. Blázquez G, Calero M, Hernáinz F, Tenorio G, Martín-Lara MA (2010) Equilibrium biosorption of lead(II) from aqueous solutions by solid waste from olive-oil production. Chem Eng J 160:615–622Google Scholar
  29. Blázquez G, Calero M, Hernáinz F, Tenorio G, Martín-Lara MA (2011a) Batch and continuous packed column studies of chromium (III) biosorption by olive stone. Environ Prog Sustain Energy 30:576–585Google Scholar
  30. Blázquez G, Martín-Lara MA, Tenorio G, Calero M (2011b) Batch biosorption of lead(II) from aqueous solutions by olive tree pruning waste: equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic study. Chem Eng J 168:170–177Google Scholar
  31. Borja R, Raposo F, Rincòn B (2006) Treatment technologies of liquid and solid wastes from two-phase olive oil mills. Grasas Y Aceites 57:32–46Google Scholar
  32. Boskou D (2006) Olive oil: chemistry and technology. American Oil Chemists Society (AOCS Press), ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  33. Budinova T, Petrov N, Razvigorova M, Parra J, Galiatsatou P (2006) Removal of arsenic(III) from aqueous solution by activated carbons prepared from solvent xxtracted olive pulp and olive stones. Ind Eng Chem Res 45:1896–1901Google Scholar
  34. Calero de Hoces M, Blázquez García G, Gálvez AR, Martín-Lara MA (2010) Effect of the acid treatment of olive stone on the biosorption of lead in a packed-bed column. Ind Eng Chem Res 49:12587–12595Google Scholar
  35. Calero M, Blázquez G, Martín-Lara MA (2011) Kinetic modeling of the biosorption of lead(II) from aqueous solutions by solid waste resulting from the olive oil production. J Chem Eng Data 56:3053–3060Google Scholar
  36. Chuah TG, Jumasiah A, Azni I, Katayon S, Thomas Choong SY (2005) Rice husk as a potentially low-cost biosorbent for heavy metal and dye removal: an overview. Desalination 175:305–316Google Scholar
  37. Cimino G, Cappello RM, Caristi C, Toscano G (2005) Characterization of carbons from olive cake by sorption of wastewater pollutants. Chemosphere 61:947–955Google Scholar
  38. Crini G (2006) Non-conventional low-cost adsorbents for dye removal: a review. Bioresour Technol 97:1061–1085Google Scholar
  39. DellaGreca M, Monaco P, Pinto G, Pollio A, Previtera L, Temussi F (2001) Phytotoxicity of low-molecular-weight phenols from olive mill waste waters. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 67:0352–0359Google Scholar
  40. Demiral I (2011) Methylene blue adsorption from aqueous solution using activated carbon prepared from olive bagasse. Fresenius Environ Bull 20:127–134Google Scholar
  41. El Bakouri H, Usero J, Morillo J, Ouassini A (2009) Adsorptive features of acid-treated olive stones for drin pesticides: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic modeling studies. Bioresour Technol 100:4147–4155Google Scholar
  42. Elouear Z, Bouzid J, Boujelben N, Feki M, Montiel A (2008) The use of exhausted olive cake ash (EOCA) as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of toxic metal ions from aqueous solutions. Fuel 87:2582–2589Google Scholar
  43. Elouear Z, Bouzid J, Boujelben N, Amor RB (2009) Study of adsorbent derived from exhausted olive pomace for the removal of Pb2+ and Zn2+ from aqueous solutions. Environ Eng Sci 26:767–774Google Scholar
  44. El-Sheikh AH, Sweileh JA, Saleh MI (2009) Partially pyrolyzed olive pomace sorbent of high permeability for preconcentration of metals from environmental waters. J Hazard Mater 169:58–64Google Scholar
  45. El-Sheikh AH, Abu Hilal MM, Sweileh JA (2011) Bio-separation, speciation and determination of chromium in water using partially pyrolyzed olive pomace sorbent. Bioresour Technol 102:5749–5756Google Scholar
  46. Fernando A, Monteiro S, Pinto F, Mendes B (2009) Production of biosorbents from waste olive cake and its adsorption characteristics for Zn2+ ion. Sustain 1:277–297Google Scholar
  47. Fiol N, Villaescusa I, Martínez M, Miralles N, Poch J, Serarols J (2006) Sorption of Pb(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution by olive stone waste. Sep Purif Technol 50:132–140Google Scholar
  48. Galiatsatou P, Metaxas M, Kasselouri-Rigopoulou V (2002) Adsorption of zinc by activated carbons prepared from solvent extracted olive pulp. J Hazard Mater 91:187–203Google Scholar
  49. Gavala HN, Skiadas IV, Ahring BK, Lyberatos G (2005) Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp. Water Sci Technol 52:209–215Google Scholar
  50. Georgieva TI, Ahring BK (2007) Potential of agroindustrial waste from olive oil industry for fuel ethanol production. Biotechnol J 2:1547–1555Google Scholar
  51. Gharaibeh SH, Abu-el-sha'r WY, Al-Kofahi MM (1998a) Removal of selected heavy metals from aqueous solutions using processed solid residue of olive mill products. Water Res 32:498–502Google Scholar
  52. Gharaibeh SH, Moore SV, Buck A (1998b) Effluent treatment of industrial wastewater using processed solid residue of olive mill products and commercial activated carbon. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 71:291–298Google Scholar
  53. Ghazy SE, El-Morsy SM (2009) Sorption of lead from aqueous solution by modified activated carbon prepared from olive stones. Afr J Biotechnol 8:4140–4148Google Scholar
  54. Guneysu S, Aydin S, Arayici S (2004) Removal of some organic acids from water using olive mill wastes as adsorbent. Fresenius Environ Bull 13:1006–1009Google Scholar
  55. Hamdaoui O (2009) Removal of cadmium from aqueous medium under ultrasound assistance using olive leaves as sorbent. Chem Eng Process Process Intensif 48:1157–1166Google Scholar
  56. Hamdi M (1993) Future prospects and constraints of olive mill wastewaters use and treatment: a review. Bioprocess Eng 8:209–214Google Scholar
  57. Hanifi S, El-Hadrami I (2009) Olive mill wastewaters: Diversity of the fatal product in olive oil industry and its valorisation as agronomical amendment of poor soils: a review. J Agron 8:1–13Google Scholar
  58. Hawari A, Rawajfih Z, Nsour N (2009) Equilibrium and thermodynamic analysis of zinc ions adsorption by olive oil mill solid residues. J Hazard Mater 168:1284–1289Google Scholar
  59. Hernáinz F, Calero M, Blázquez G, Martín-Lara MA, Tenorio G (2008) Comparative study of the biosorption of cadmium(II), chromium(III), and lead(II) by olive stone. Environ Prog 27:469–478Google Scholar
  60. Hodaifa G, Ochando-Pulido JM, Driss Alami SB, Rodriguez-Vives S, Martinez-Ferez A (2013) Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of iron adsorption onto olive stones. Ind Crop Prod 49:526–534Google Scholar
  61. Ihemouchen C, Djidjelli H, Boukerrou A, Fenouillot F, Barres C (2012) Effect of compatibilizing agents on the mechanical properties of high-density polyethylene/olive husk flour composites. J Appl Polymer Sci 128:2224–2229Google Scholar
  62. IOC (2010) International Olive Council. http://www.internationaloliveoil.org/
  63. Khalil L, Girgis B, Tawfik T (2000) Porosity characteristics of activated carbons derived from olive oil wastes impregnated with H3PO4. Adsorpt Sci Technol 18:373–383Google Scholar
  64. Konstantinou M, Pashalidis I (2007) Adsorption of hexavalent uranium on biomass by-product. J Radioanal Nuclear Chem 273:549–552Google Scholar
  65. Konstantinou M, Kolokassidou K, Pashalidis I (2007) Sorption of Cu(II) and Eu(III) ions from aqueous solution by olive cake. Adsorption 13:33–40Google Scholar
  66. Kula I, Uğurlu M, Karaoğlu H, Çelik A (2008) Adsorption of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from olive stone by ZnCl2 activation. Bioresour Technol 99:492–501Google Scholar
  67. Kütahyalı C, Eral M (2010) Sorption studies of uranium and thorium on activated carbon prepared from olive stones: kinetic and thermodynamic aspects. J Nucl Mater 396:251–256Google Scholar
  68. La Rubia-García MD, Yebra-Rodríguez Á, Eliche-Quesada D, Corpas-Iglesias FA, López-Galindo A (2012) Assessment of olive mill solid residue (pomace) as an additive in lightweight brick production. Constr Build Mater 36:495–500Google Scholar
  69. Lucey MR (2002) Olive mill solid residues as heavy metal sorbent material: a preliminary study. Waste Manage 22:901–907Google Scholar
  70. Malkoc E, Nuhoglu Y, Dundar M (2006) Adsorption of chromium(VI) on pomace—an olive oil industry waste: batch and column studies. J Hazard Mater 138:142–151Google Scholar
  71. Mameri N, Aioueche F, Belhocine D, Grib H, Lounici H, Piron DL, Yahiat Y (2000) Preparation of activated carbon from olive mill solid residue. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 75:625–631Google Scholar
  72. Mantzavinos D, Kalogerakis N (2005) Treatment of olive mill effluents: Part I. Organic matter degradation by chemical and biological processes—an overview. Environ Int 31:289–295Google Scholar
  73. Martinez-Garcia G, Bachmann RT, Williams CJ, Burgoyne A, Edyvean RGJ (2006) Olive oil waste as a biosorbent for heavy metals. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 58:231–238Google Scholar
  74. Martín-Lara MA, Pagnanelli F, Mainelli S, Calero M, Toro L (2008) Chemical treatment of olive pomace: effect on acid-basic properties and metal biosorption capacity. J Hazard Mater 156:448–457Google Scholar
  75. Martín-Lara MA, Hernáinz F, Calero M, Blázquez G, Tenorio G (2009) Surface chemistry evaluation of some solid wastes from olive-oil industry used for lead removal from aqueous solutions. Biochem Eng J 44:151–159Google Scholar
  76. Martín-Lara MA, Rodríguez IL, Blázquez G, Calero M (2011) Factorial experimental design for optimizating the removal conditions of lead ions from aqueous solutions by three wastes of the olive-oil production. Desalination 278:132–140Google Scholar
  77. Metaxas M, Kasselouri-Rigopoulou V, Galiatsatou P, Konstantopoulou C, Oikonomou D (2003) Thorium removal by different adsorbents. J Hazard Mater 97:71–82Google Scholar
  78. Michailof C, Stavropoulos GG, Panayiotou C (2008) Enhanced adsorption of phenolic compounds, commonly encountered in olive mill wastewaters, on olive husk derived activated carbons. Bioresour Technol 99:6400–6408Google Scholar
  79. Moftah O, Grbavčić S, Žuža M, Luković N, Bezbradica D, Knežević-Jugović Z (2012) Adding value to the oil cake as a waste from oil processing industry: production of lipase and protease by Candida utilis in solid state fermentation. Appl Biochem Biotech 166:348–364Google Scholar
  80. Mousa A, Heinrich G, Gohs U, Hässler R, Wagenknecht U (2009) Application of renewable agro-waste-based olive pomace on the mechanical and thermal performance of toughened PVC. Polymer Plast Technol Eng 48:1030–1040Google Scholar
  81. Nefzaoui (1995) Olive by-products recycling. Proc. of the International Symposium on olive oil processes and by-products recycling, GranadaGoogle Scholar
  82. Niaounakis M, Halvadakis CP (2006) Olive processing waste management—literature review and patent survey, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Oxford UKGoogle Scholar
  83. Nieto LM, Alami SBD, Hodaifa G, Faur C, Rodríguez S, Giménez JA, Ochando J (2010) Adsorption of iron on crude olive stones. Ind Crop Prod 32:467–471Google Scholar
  84. Nuhoglu Y, Malkoc E (2009) Thermodynamic and kinetic studies for environmentaly friendly Ni(II) biosorption using waste pomace of olive oil factory. Bioresour Technol 100:2375–2380Google Scholar
  85. Pagnanelli F, Toro L, Vegliò F (2002) Olive mill solid residues as heavy metal sorbent material: a preliminary study. Waste Manage 22:901–907Google Scholar
  86. Pagnanelli F, Mainelli S, Vegliò F, Toro L (2003) Heavy metal removal by olive pomace: biosorbent characterisation and equilibrium modelling. Chem Eng Sci 58:4709–4717Google Scholar
  87. Pagnanelli F, Viggi CC, Toro L (2010) Development of new composite biosorbents from olive pomace wastes. Appl Surf Sci 256:5492–5497Google Scholar
  88. Pala A, Galiatsatou P, Tokat E, Erkaya H, Israilides C, Arapoglou D (2006) The use of activated carbon from olive oil mill residue, for the removal of colour from textile wastewater. Eur Water 13(14):29–34Google Scholar
  89. Paraskeva P, Diamadopoulos E (2006) Technologies for olive mill wastewater (OMW) treatment: a review. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 81:1475–1485Google Scholar
  90. Paraskeva CA, Papadakis VG, Kanellopoulou DG, Koutsoukos PG, Angelopoulos KC (2007a) Membrane filtration of olive mill wastewater and exploitation of its fractions. Water Environ Res 79:421–429Google Scholar
  91. Paraskeva CA, Papadakis VG, Tsarouchi E, Kanellopoulou DG, Koutsoukos PG (2007b) Membrane processing for olive mill wastewater fractionation. Desalination 213:218–229Google Scholar
  92. Paredes MJ, Moreno E, Ramos-Cormenzana A, Martinez J (1987) Characteristics of soil after pollution with waste waters from olive oil extraction plants. Chemosphere 16:1557–1564Google Scholar
  93. Pellera F-M, Giannis A, Kalderis D, Anastasiadou K, Stegmann R, Wang J-Y, Gidarakos E (2012) Adsorption of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solutions on biochars prepared from agricultural by-products. J Environ Manage 96:35–42Google Scholar
  94. Pereira M, Arroyo P, de Barros M, Sanches V, da Silva E, Fonseca I, Lovera R (2006) Chromium adsorption in olive stone activated carbon. Adsorption 12:155–162Google Scholar
  95. Petrov N, Budinova T, Razvigorova M, Parra J, Galiatsatou P (2008) Conversion of olive wastes to volatiles and carbon adsorbents. Biomass Bioenergy 32:1303–1310Google Scholar
  96. Pirrone N, Keeler GJ, Nriagu JO (1996) Regional differences in worldwide emissions of mercury to the atmosphere. Atmos Environ 30:2981–2987Google Scholar
  97. Rana G, Rinaldi M, Introna M (2003) Volatilisation of substances alter spreading olive oil waste water on the soil in a Mediterranean environment. Agric Ecosyst Environ 96:49–58Google Scholar
  98. Roig A, Cayuela ML, Sánchez-Monedero MA (2006) An overview on olive mill wastes and their valorisation methods. Waste Manag 26:960–969Google Scholar
  99. Román S, González JF, González-García CM, Zamora F (2008) Control of pore development during CO2 and steam activation of olive stones. Fuel Process Technol 89:715–720Google Scholar
  100. Román S, Valente Nabais JM, Ledesma B, González JF, Laginhas C, Titirici MM (2013) Production of low-cost adsorbents with tunable surface chemistry by conjunction of hydrothermal carbonization and activation processes. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 165:127–133Google Scholar
  101. Rouibah K, Meniai A-H, Rouibah MT, Deffous L, Lehocine MB (2009) Elimination of chromium (VI) and cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto olive stones. The Open Chem Eng J 3:41–48Google Scholar
  102. Rouibah K, Meniai AH, Deffous L, Lehocine MB (2010) Chromium VI and cadmium II removal from aqueous solutions by olive stones. Desalin Water Treat 16:393–401Google Scholar
  103. Schwarzenbach RP, Escher BI, Fenner K, Hofstetter TB, Johnson CA, von Gunten U, Wehrli B (2006) The challenge of micropollutants in aquatic systems. Science 313:1072–1077Google Scholar
  104. Sesli M, Yeğenoğlu ED (2009) RAPD-PCR analysis of cultured type olives in Turkey. Afr J Biotechnol 8:3418–3423Google Scholar
  105. Silvestre-Albero J, Silvestre-Albero A, Rodríguez-Reinoso F, Thommes M (2012) Physical characterization of activated carbons with narrow microporosity by nitrogen (77.4K), carbon dioxide (273K) and argon (87.3K) adsorption in combination with immersion calorimetry. Carbon 50:3128–3133Google Scholar
  106. Siracusa G, La Rosa AD, Siracusa V, Trovato M (2001) Eco-compatible use of olive husk as filler in thermoplastic composites. J Polym Environ 9:157–161Google Scholar
  107. Spahis N, Addoun A, Mahmoudi H, Ghaffour N (2008) Purification of water by activated carbon prepared from olive stones. Desalination 222:519–527Google Scholar
  108. Stamatakis G (2010) Energy and geo-environmental applications for olive mill wastes. a review. Hellenic J Geosci 45:269–282Google Scholar
  109. Stasinakis AS, Elia I, Petalas AV, Halvadakis CP (2008) Removal of total phenols from olive-mill wastewater using an agricultural by-product, olive pomace. J Hazard Mater 160:408–413Google Scholar
  110. Ubago-Pérez R, Carrasco-Marín F, Fairén-Jiménez D, Moreno-Castilla C (2006) Granular and monolithic activated carbons from KOH-activation of olive stones. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 92:64–70Google Scholar
  111. Uğurlu M, Gürses A, Doğar Ç (2007) Adsorption studies on the treatment of textile dyeing effluent by activated carbon prepared from olive stone by ZnCl2 activation. Color Technol 123:106–114Google Scholar
  112. Uğurlu M, Gürses A, Açıkyıldız M (2008) Comparison of textile dyeing effluent adsorption on commercial activated carbon and activated carbon prepared from olive stone by ZnCl2 activation. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 111:228–235Google Scholar
  113. Uğurlu M, Kula I, Karaoğlu MH, Arslan Y (2009) Removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solutions using activated-carbon prepared from olive stone by ZnCl2 activation. Environ Prog Sust Energ 28:547–557Google Scholar
  114. UNESCO (2003) World Water Assessment Programme, Water for People, Water for Life—the United Nations World Water Development ReportGoogle Scholar
  115. Uzunosmanoglu O, Uyanik A, Engin MS (2011) The removal of cadmium (II), copper (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions by olive tree pruning waste. Fresenius Environ Bull 20:3135–3140Google Scholar
  116. Vegliò F, Beolchini F, Prisciandaro M (2003) Sorption of copper by olive mill residues. Water Res 37:4895–4903Google Scholar
  117. Volpe A, Lopez A, Pagano M (2003) Olive husk: an alternative sorbent for removing heavy metals from aqueous streams. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 110:137–149Google Scholar
  118. Wahby A, Abdelouahab-Reddam Z, El Mail R, Stitou M, Silvestre-Albero J, Sepúlveda-Escribano A, Rodríguez-Reinoso F (2011) Mercury removal from aqueous solution by adsorption on activated carbons prepared from olive stones. Adsorption 17:603–609Google Scholar
  119. Wang Q, Kim D, Dionysiou DD, Sorial GA, Timberlake D (2004) Sources and remediation for mercury contamination in aquatic systems—a literature review. Environ Pollut 131:323–336Google Scholar
  120. Yakout SM, Sharaf El-Deen G (2011) Characterization of activated carbon prepared by phosphoric acid activation of olive stones. Arabian J Chem. doi:10.1016/j.arabjc.2011.12.002
  121. Yavuz R, Akyildiz H, Karatepe N, Çetinkaya E (2010) Influence of preparation conditions on porous structures of olive stone activated by H3PO4. Fuel Process Technol 91:80–87Google Scholar
  122. Yeddou AR, Nadjemi B, Halet F, Ould-Dris A, Capart R (2010) Removal of cyanide in aqueous solution by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide in presence of activated carbon prepared from olive stones. Miner Eng 23:32–39Google Scholar
  123. Zervakis G, Balis C (1996) Bioremediation of olive oil mill wastes through the production of fungal biomass In: Royse (Hrsg.), Mushroom biology and mushroom products. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference. Penn State Univ., University ParkGoogle Scholar
  124. Zhou Y-F, Haynes RJ (2010) Sorption of heavy metals by inorganic and organic components of solid wastes: significance to use of wastes as low-cost adsorbents and immobilizing agents. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 40:909–977Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amit Bhatnagar
    • 1
  • Fabio Kaczala
    • 1
  • William Hogland
    • 1
  • Marcia Marques
    • 1
    • 2
  • Christakis A. Paraskeva
    • 3
    • 4
  • Vagelis G. Papadakis
    • 5
  • Mika Sillanpää
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Faculty of Health and Life SciencesLinnaeus UniversityKalmarSweden
  2. 2.Department of Sanitary and Environmental EngineeringRio de Janeiro State University, UERJRio de JaneiroBrazil
  3. 3.Institute of Chemical Engineering SciencesFoundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (FORTH/ICE-HT)PatrasGreece
  4. 4.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of PatrasRionGreece
  5. 5.Department of Environmental & Natural Resources ManagementUniversity of PatrasAgrinioGreece
  6. 6.Faculty of Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Laboratory of Green ChemistryMikkeliFinland

Personalised recommendations