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Removal of xylenol orange from its aqueous solution using SDS self-microemulsifying systems: optimization by Box–Behnken statistical design

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The aim of present study was to develop and evaluate sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) self-microemulsifying systems (SMES) for the removal of an anionic dye xylenol orange (XO) from its bulk aqueous media via liquid–liquid adsorption. The composition of SDS SMES was optimized by Box–Behnken statistical design for the maximum removal of XO from its aqueous solution. Various SDS formulations were prepared by spontaneous emulsification method and characterized for thermodynamic stability, self-microemulsification efficiency, droplet size, and viscosity. Adsorption studies were conducted at 8, 16, and 24 h by mixing small amounts of SDS formulations with relatively large amounts of bulk aqueous solution of XO. Droplet size and viscosity of SDS formulations were significantly influenced by oil phase concentration (triacetin), while surfactant concentration had little impact on droplet size and viscosity. However, the percentage of removal of XO was influenced by triacetin concentration, surfactant concentration, and adsorption time. Based on lowest droplet size (35.97 nm), lowest viscosity (29.62 cp), and highest percentage of removal efficiency (89.77 %), formulation F14, containing 2 % w/w of triacetin and 40 % w/w of surfactant mixture (20 % w/w of SDS and 20 % w/w of polyethylene glycol 400), was selected as an optimized formulation for the removal of XO from its bulk aqueous media after 16 h. These results indicated that SDS SMES could be suitable alternates of solid–liquid adsorption for the removal of toxic dyes such as XO from its aqueous solution through liquid–liquid adsorption.

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The authors express their gratitude toward the Center of Excellence in Biotechnology Research (CEBR) and Department of Pharmaceutics, King Saud University for their funding and support.

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflict of interest related with this manuscript.

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Correspondence to Faiyaz Shakeel.

Additional information

Responsible editor: Bingcai Pan

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Shakeel, F., Haq, N., Alanazi, F.K. et al. Removal of xylenol orange from its aqueous solution using SDS self-microemulsifying systems: optimization by Box–Behnken statistical design. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21, 5187–5200 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-2090-2

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  • Liquid–liquid adsorption
  • Box–Behnken design
  • Self-microemulsifying system
  • Sodium dodecyl sulfate
  • Xylenol orange