Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 1680–1690 | Cite as

Temperature enhanced effects of chlorine exposure on the health status of the sentinel organism Mytilus galloprovincialis

  • Cristina López-Galindo
  • Ignacio Ruiz-Jarabo
  • Daniel Rubio
  • Enrique Nebot
  • Montserrat Solé
  • Juan M. Mancera
Research Article


It now is widely recognised that the global temperature is rising, a phenomenon which could alter the effects of pollution on wildlife. In order to assess the role of temperature and exposure to chlorine due to cooling water discharges, a battery of metabolic, oxidative stress and histological parameters were evaluated in Mytilus galloprovincialis after 15 and 30 days at 15 °C and at two increased temperatures (+5 and +10 °C). Diverse gill pathologies such as haemolymphatic sinus dilatation, an increased number of mucocytes and granulocytes as well as a lower number of cilia were observed after 30 days exposure at higher temperatures. Protein, amino acid, triglyceride and fatty acid levels decreased when the temperature increased, as a consequence of higher energetic demand. Similarly, acetylcholinesterase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities showed an inhibition at higher temperatures, although gill lipid peroxidation levels remained unaffected. Our results suggest that increased temperatures induce deterioration in the health status of the mussels and in their defensive capacity against a polluted environment.


Chlorine Mytilus galloprovincialis Gill histopathology Metabolic parameters Oxidative stress biomarkers Temperature 



The authors are grateful to power plant “Nueva Generadora del Sur” (San Roque, Cádiz, Spain) for providing their facilities and help and to Agustin Santos Alvarez for his valuable laboratory support. This research work was funded by grant CTM2009-09527 and CSD2007-0055 to E.N.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristina López-Galindo
    • 1
  • Ignacio Ruiz-Jarabo
    • 2
  • Daniel Rubio
    • 1
  • Enrique Nebot
    • 1
  • Montserrat Solé
    • 3
  • Juan M. Mancera
    • 2
  1. 1.Departamento de Tecnologías del Medio Ambiente, Centro Andaluz de Ciencia y Tecnología Marina (CACYTMAR)Universidad de CádizCadizSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y AmbientalesUniversidad de CádizCadizSpain
  3. 3.Institut de Ciencies del MarICM-CSICBarcelonaSpain

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