Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 1039–1053 | Cite as

Assessment of competitive ability of two Indian wheat cultivars under ambient O3 at different developmental stages

Research Article

Abstract

The concentrations of O3 are increasing, which may have potential adverse effects on crop yield. This paper deals with assessing the intraspecific variability of two wheat cultivars (PBW 343 and M 533) at different growth stages using open top chambers. Mean O3 concentrations were 50.2 and 53.2 ppb, and AOT40 values were 9 and 12.1 ppm h, respectively, in 2008–2009 and 2009–2010. Reproductive stage showed higher AOT40 values (6.9 and 9.2 ppm h) compared to vegetative (2.23 and 2.9 ppm h). Critical levels of a 3-month AOT 40 of 3 ppm h led to 6 % yield reduction in two wheat cultivars for two consecutive years. Variations in photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance (gs), Fv/Fm ratio, photosynthetic pigments, primary and secondary metabolites, morphological parameters, and yield attributes were measured at vegetative and reproductive stages. Reductions in number of leaves, leaf area, total biomass, root/shoot ratio, RGR, photosynthetic pigments, protein content, and Fv/Fm ratio in PBW 343 were more than M 533 at reproductive stage. Photosynthetic rate did not vary between the cultivars, but gs was higher in PBW 343 compared to M 533 under ambient O3. Higher total phenolics and peroxidase activity were recorded in M 533 at reproductive stage conferring higher resistance at latter age. Results of O3 resistance showed that M 533 was sensitive compared to PBW 343 during vegetative stage but developed more resistance at reproductive stage. PBW 343 with larger leaf area and high gs is more sensitive than M 533 with smaller leaf area and low gs. The study suggests that the sensitivity varied with plant growth stage, and the plant showing higher sensitivity during vegetative period developed more resistance during reproductive period due to higher defense mechanism. Though the yield reductions were same in both cultivars under ambient O3, the mechanism of acquiring the resistance is different between the cultivars.

Keywords

Wheat AOT 40 Critical levels Photosynthesis Chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics Photosynthetic pigments growth Yield 

Abbreviations

AA

Ascorbic acid

AOT40

Accumulated O3 over a threshold concentration of 40 ppb

ANOVA

Analysis of variance

DAG

Days after germination

gs

Stomatal conductance

Fo

Minimal fluorescence

Fm

Maximal fluorescence

Fv

Variable fluorescence

Fv/Fm

Photosynthetic efficiency

FCs

Filtered chambers

K

Potassium

LPO

Lipid peroxidation

MDA

Malondialdehyde

N

Nitrogen

NFCs

Non-filtered chambers

OPs

Open plots

OTCs

Open top chambers

ppb

Parts per billion

POD

Peroxidase

P

Phosphorus

Ps

Photosynthetic rate

PAR

Photosynthetically active radiation

RGR

Relative growth rate

WUE

Water use efficiency

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful to the Head of the Department of Botany for all the laboratory facilities and to the University Grant Commission, New Delhi and Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi for providing financial support to the work. Richa Rai is grateful to the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi for awarding Research Associate fellowship.

References

  1. Agrawal SB, Singh A, Rathore D (2005) Role of ethylene diurea (EDU) in assessing impact of ozone on Vigna radiata L. plants in a suburban area in Allahabad. Chemosphere 61:218–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akhtar N, Yamaguchi M, Inada H, Hoshino D, Kondo T, Izutaet T (2010) Effects of ozone on growth, yield and leaf gas exchange rates of two Bangladeshi cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Environ Pollut 158:2970–2976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Biswas DK, Xu H, Li YG, Sun JZ, Wang XZ, Han XG, Jiang GM (2008) Genotypic differences in leaf biochemical, physiological, and growth responses to ozone in 20 winter wheat cultivars released over the past 60 years. Global Change Biol 14:46–59Google Scholar
  4. Black VJ, Black CR, Roberts JA, Stewart CA (2000) Impact of ozone on the reproductive development of plants. New Phytol 147:421–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bray HG, Thorpe WY (1954) Analysis of phenolic compounds of interest in metabolism. Methods of Biochem Anal 1:27–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Britton C, Mehley AC (1955) Assay of catalase and peroxidase. In: Colowick SP, Kalpan NO (eds) Methods Enzymol Academic Press Inc., New York vol. 2 pp 764Google Scholar
  7. Calatayud A, Barreno E (2004) Response to ozone in two lettuce varieties on chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments, and lipid peroxidation. Plant Physiol Biochem 42:549–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Castagna A, Nali C, Ciompi S, Lorenzini G, Soldatini GF, Ranieri A (2001) Ozone exposure affects photosynthesis of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) plants. New Phytol 152:223–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cooley DR, Manning WJ (1987) The impact of O3 on assimilate partitioning in plants: a review. Environ Pollut 47:95–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davison AW, Barnes JD (1998) Effects of ozone on wild plants. New Phytol 139:135–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Drogoudi PD, Ashmore MR (2002) Effects of elevated ozone on yield and carbon allocation in strawberry cultivars differing in developmental stage. Phyton 42:45–53Google Scholar
  12. Duxbury AC (1956) Yentsch CS (1956). Plankton pigment monographs. J of Marine Res 15:19–101Google Scholar
  13. Emberson L, Buker P (2011). Current knowledge of the impacts of ozone on food crops in South Asia. In: Mills G, Harmens H (eds) Ozone Pollution: A hidden threat to food security. ICP Vegetation Report, Center for Ecology, Bangor, UK pp 83–92Google Scholar
  14. Emberson LD, Buker P, Ashmore MR, Mills G, Jackson LS, Agrawal M, Atikuzzaman MD, Cinderby S, Engardt M, Jamir C, Kobayashi K, Oanh NTK, Quadir QF, Wahid A (2009) A comparison of North- America and Asian exposure–response data for ozone effects on crop yields. Atmos Environ 43:1945–1953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Feng Z, Jin M, Zhang F (2003) Effects of ground-level (O3) pollution on the yields of rice and winter wheat in the Yangtze River Delta. J Environ Sci 15:360–362Google Scholar
  16. Feng Z, Pang J, Nouchi I, Kobayashi K, Yamakawa T, Zhu J (2010) Apoplastic ascorbate contributes to the differential ozone sensitivity in two varieties of winter wheat under fully open airfield conditions. Environ Pollut 158:3539–3545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Feng Z, Pang J, Kobayashi K, Zhu J, Ort DR (2011) Differential responses in two varieties of winter wheat to elevated O3 concentration under fully open airfield conditions. Global Change Biol 17:580–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Frederick JR (1997) Winter wheat leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf nitrogen concentration during reproductive development. Crop Sci 37:1819–1826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fuhrer J, Booker F (2003) Ecological issues related to ozone: agricultural issues. Environ Int 29:141–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Guidi L, Degl’Innocenti E, Martinelli F, Piras M (2009) Ozone effects on carbon metabolism in sensitive and insensitive Phaseolus cultivars. Environ Exper Bot 66:117–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Heath RL, Packer L (1968) Photoperoxidation in isolated chloroplast. I. Kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Arch Biochem Biophys 125:189–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hunt R (1982) Growth curves. Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd., LondonGoogle Scholar
  23. Jones GG, Hartley SE (1999) A protein competition model of phenol allocation. Oikos 86:27–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kangasjärvi J, Jaspers P, Kollist H (2005) Signaling, gene expression and cell death in ozone-exposed plants. Plant Cell Environ 28:1021–1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Keller T, Schwager H (1977) Air pollution and ascorbic acid. Eur J Forest Pathol 7:338–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lehnherr B, Ma¨chler F, Grandjean A, Fuhrer J (1988) The regulation of photosynthesis in leaves of field-grown spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Albis) at different levels of ozone in ambient air. Plant Physiol 88:1115–1119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Leisner CP, Ainsworth EA (2012) Qunatifying the effects of ozone on plant reproductive growth and development. Global Change Biol 18:606–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Maclachlan S, Zalik S (1963) Plastid structure, chlorophyll concentration, and free amino acid composition of a chlorophyll mutant of barley. Can J Bot 41:1053–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mills G, Buse A, Gimeno B, Bermejo V, Holland M, Emberson L, Pleijel H (2007) A synthesis of AOT40-based response functions and critical levels of ozone for agricultural and horticultural crops. Atmos Environ 41:2630–2643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pleijel H, Danielsson H, Gelang J, Slid E, Sèllden G (1998) Growth stages dependence of the grain yield response to ozone in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Agricult. Ecosyst Environ 70:61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pleijel H, Eriksen AB, Danielsson H, Bondesson N, Selldén G (2006) Differential ozone sensitivity in an old and a modern Swedish wheat cultivar grain yield and quality, leaf chlorophyll, and stomatal conductance. Environ Exper Bot 56:63–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rai R, Agrawal M (2008) Evaluation of physiological and biochemical responses of two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars to ambient air pollution using open top chambers at a rural site in India. Sci Total Environ 407:679–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rai R, Agrawal M, Agrawal SB (2007) Assessment of yield losses in tropical wheat using open top chambers. Atmos Environ 41:9543–9554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rai R, Agrawal M, Agrawal SB (2011) Effects of ambient O3 on wheat during reproductive development: gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence, and carbohydrates. Photosynthetica 49:285–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Reiling K, Davison AW (1992) Effects of a short ozone exposure given at different stages in the development of Plantago major L. New Phytol 121:643–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Roy SD, Beig G, Ghude SD (2009) Exposure–plant response of ambient ozone over the tropical Indian region. Atmos Chem Phys 4:3359–3380Google Scholar
  37. Royal Society (2008) Ground-level ozone in the 21st century: future trends, impacts and policy implications. Science Policy report 15/08. The Royal Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  38. Sarkar A, Agrawal SB (2010) Elevated ozone and two modern wheat cultivars: an assessment of dose-dependent sensitivity with respect to growth, reproductive, and yield parameters. Environ Exper Bot 69:328–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sarkar A, Rakwal R, Agrawal SB, Shibato J, Ogawa Y, Yoshida Y, Agrawal GK, Agrawal M (2010) Investigating the impact of elevated levels of O3 on tropical wheat using integrated phenotypical, physiological, biochemical, and proteomics approaches. J Proteome Res 9:4565–4584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Singh S, Agrawal SB (2009) Use of ethylene diurea (EDU) in assessing the impact of ozone on growth and productivity of five cultivarsof Indian wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Environ Monit Assess 159:125–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Singh A, Agrawal SB, Rathore D (2005) Amelioration of Indian urban air pollution phytotoxicity in Beta vulgaris by modifying NPK nutrients. Environ Pollut 134:385–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Takahama U, Oniki T (1992) A peroxidase/phenolics/ascorbate system can scavenge hydrogen peroxide in plant cells. Phsiol Plant 101:845–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Teixeira E, Fischer G, van Velthuizen H, van Dingenen R, Dentener F, Mills G, Walter C, Ewert F (2011) Limited potential of crop management for mitigating surface ozone impacts on global food supply. Atmos Environ 45:2569–2576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tiwari S, Agrawal M, Manning JW (2005) Assessing the impact of ambient ozone on growth and productivity of two cultivars of wheat in India using three rates of application of ethylenediurea (EDU). Environ Pollut 138:153–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tiwari S, Agrawal M, Marshall F (2006) Evaluation of ambient air pollution impact on carrot plants at a suburban site using open top chamber. Environ Monit Assess 266:15–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Van Dingenen R, Dentener FJ, Raes F, Krol MC, Emberson L, Cofala J (2009) The global impact of ozone on agricultural crop yields under current and future air quality legislation. Atmos Environ 43:604–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zancani M, Nagy G (2000) Phenol dependent H2O2 breakdown by soybean root plasma membrane bound peroxidase is regulated by ascorbate and thiols. J Plant Physiol 156:295–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Department of BotanyBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

Personalised recommendations