Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 998–1009 | Cite as

Concentration levels and congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls, pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene in commercial pigments

  • Katsunori AnezakiEmail author
  • Takeshi Nakano
Research Article

Abstract

The concentration levels and congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz), and hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) were assessed in commercially available organic pigments. Among the azo-type pigments tested, PCB-11, which is synthesized from 3,3′-dichlorobendizine, and PCB-52, which is synthesized from 2,2′,5,5′-tetrachlorobendizine, were the major congeners detected. It is speculated that these were byproducts of chlorobendizine, which has a very similar structure. The total PCB concentrations in this type of pigment ranged from 0.0070 to 740 mg/kg. Among the phthalocyanine-type pigments, highly chlorinated PCBs, mainly composed of PCB-209, PeCBz, and HxCBz were detected. Their concentration levels ranged from 0.011 to 2.5 mg/kg, 0.0035 to 8.4 mg/kg, and 0.027 to 75 mg/kg, respectively. It is suggested that PeCBz and HxCBz were formed as byproducts and converted into PCBs at the time of synthesizing the phthalocyanine green. For the polycyclic-type pigments that were assessed, a distinctive PCB congener profile was detected that suggested an impact of their raw materials and the organic solvent used in the pigment synthesis. PCB pollution from PCB-11, PCB-52, and PCB-209 pigments is of particular concern; therefore, the monthly variations in atmospheric concentrations of these pollutants were measured in an urban area (Sapporo city) and an industrial area (Muroran city). The study detected a certain level of PCB-11, which is not included in PCB technical mixtures, and revealed continuing PCB pollution originating from pigments in the ambient air.

Keywords

Polychlorinated biphenyls Congeners Hexachlorobenzene Pentachlorobenzene Pigments Ambient air Byproduct 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI grant number 24710016.

References

  1. Abramowicz DA (1990) Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of PCBs: a review. Crit Rev Biotechnol 10:241–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aliyeva G, Kurkova R, Hovorkova I, Klánová J, Halsall C (2012) Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air and soil across Azerbaijan. Environ Sci Pollut Res 19:1953–1962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anezaki K, Yamaguchi K (2011) Monitoring of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in ambient air samples by low volume air sampler using activated carbon fiber felt. J Environ Chem 21:303–311 (in Japanese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anezaki K, Yamaguchi K, Natsume S, Iwata R, Hashimoto S (2007) Estimation of PCB sources using statistical methods. Bunsekikagaku 56:639–648 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  5. Basu I, Arnold KA, Venier M, Hites RA (2009) Partial pressures of PCB-11 in air from several Great Lakes sites. Environ Sci Technol 43:6488–6492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cindoruk SS, Tasdemir Y (2010) Ambient air levels and trends of polychlorinated biphenyls at four different sites. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 59:542–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Çok I, Şatiroğlu MH (2004) Polychlorinated biphenyl levels in adipose tissue of primiparous women in Turkey. Environ Int 30:7–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. StockholmConvention (2001) The conference of plenipotentiaries on the adoption and signing of the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. Stockholm, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  9. Davis JA, Hetzel F, Oram JJ, Mckee LJ (2007) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in San Francisco Bay. Environ Res 105:67–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Du S, Belton TJ, Rodenburg LA (2008) Source apportionment of polychlorinated biphenyls in the tidal Delaware River. Environ Sci Technol 42:4044–4051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Faulkner EB, Schwartz RJ (2009) High performance pigments, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Frame GM, Cochran JW, Bøwadt SS (1996) Complete PCB congener distributions for 17 aroclor mixtures determined by 3 HRGC systems optimized for comprehensive, quantitative, congener-specific analysis. J High Resolut Chromatogr 19:657–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gedik K, Demircioğlu F, İmamoğlu İ (2010) Spatial distribution and source apportionment of PCBs in sediments around İzmit industrial complexes, Turkey. Chemosphere 81:992–999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Honda T, Wada M, Nakashima K (2008) Concentration and characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls in the sediments of sea and river in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. J Health Sci 54:400–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hu D, Hornbuckle KC (2010) Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments. Environ Sci Technol 44:2822–2827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hu D, Martinez A, Hornbuckle KC (2008) Discovery of non-aroclor PCB (3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl) in Chicago air. Environ Sci Technol 42:7873–7877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ilyas M, Sudaryanto A, Setiawan IE, Riyadi AS, Isobe T, Takahashi S, Tanabe S (2011) Characterization of polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants in sediments from riverine and coastal waters of Surabaya, Indonesia. Mar Pollut Bull 62:89–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ishaq R, Näf C, Zebühr Y, Broman D, Järnberg U (2003) PCBs, PCNs, PCDD/Fs, PAHs and Cl-PAHs in air and water particulate samples––patterns and variations. Chemosphere 50:1131–1150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ishikawa Y, Noma Y, Yamamoto T, Mori Y, Sakai S (2007) PCB decomposition and formation in thermal treatment plant equipment. Chemosphere 67:1383–1393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kim KS, Hirai Y, Kato M, Urano K, Masynaga S (2004) Detailed PCB congener patterns in incinerator flue gas and commercial PCB formulations (kanechlor). Chemosphere 55:539–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. King TL, Yeats P, Hellou J, Niven S (2002) Tracing the source of 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl found in samples collected in and around Halifax Harbour. Mar Pollut Bull 44:590–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li YM, Geng DW, Hu YB, Wang P, Zhang QH, Jiang GB (2012a) Levels and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in the atmosphere close to Chinese Great Wall Station, Antarctica: results from XAD-resin passive air sampling. Chin Sci Bull 57:1499–1503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Li Q, Xu Y, Li J, Pan X, Liu X, Zhang G (2012b) Levels and spatial distribution of gaseous polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes in the air over the northern South China Sea. Atmos Environ 56:228–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Litten S, Fowler B, Luszniak D (2002) Identification of a novel PCB source through analysis of 209 PCB congeners by US EPA modified method 1668. Chemosphere 46:1457–1459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Liu PY, Zheng MH, Zhang B, Xu XB (2001) Mechanism of PCBs formation from the pyrolysis of chlorobenzenes. Chemosphere 43:783–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Martinez A, Erdman NR, Rodenburg ZL, Eastling PM, Hornbuckle KC (2012) Spatial distribution of chlordanes and PCB congeners in soil in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA. Environ Pollut 161:222–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Matsumura C, Tsurukawa M, Nakano T, Ezaki T, Ohashi M (2002) Elution orders of all 209 PCBs congeners on capillary column “HT8-PCB”. J Environ Chem 12:855–865 (in Japanese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ministry of the Environment (2013) Chemicals in the Environment. Report on Environmental Survey and Monitoring of Chemicals, FA2011, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  29. Nakano T, Konishi Y, Masho R (2008) Trends of PCB congener patterns in Japanese environmental media, food, breast milk, and blood in view of risk assessment. In: Hansen LG, Robertson LW (eds) PCBs: human and environmental disposition and toxicology. University of Illinois, Urbana, pp 7–29Google Scholar
  30. Numata M, Kaneko T, Mi Q, Ye M, Kawamata S, Matsuno M, Yarita T (2008) Preparation of a sulfoxide group and ammonium-salt bonded silica stationary phase for separation of polychlorinated biphenyls from mineral oils. J Chromatogr A 1210:68–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Piazza R, Gambaro A, Argiriadis E, Vecchiato M, Zambon S, Cescon P, Barbante C (2013) Development of a method for simultaneous analysis of PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, PBDEs, PCNs and PAHs in Antarctic air. Anal Bioanal Chem 405:917–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pozo K, Harner T, Rudolph A, Oyola G, Estellano VH, Ahumada-Rudolph R, Garrido M, Pozo K, Mabilia R, Focardi S (2012) Survey of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere of rural, urban and industrial areas of Concepciόn, Chile, using passive air samplers. Atmos Pollut Res 3:426–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Praipipat P, Rodenburg LA, Cavallo GJ (2013) Source apportionment of polychlorinated biphenyls in the sediments of the Delaware river. Environ Sci Technol 47:4277–4283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rachdawong P, Christensen ER (1997) Determination of PCB sources by a principal component method with non-negative constraints. Environ Sci Technol 31:2686–2691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rodenburg LA, Guo J, Du S, Cavallo GJ (2010) Evidence for unique and ubiquitous environmental sources of 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11). Environ Sci Technol 44:2816–2821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rowe AA, Totten LA, Xie M, Fikslin TJ, Eisenreich SJ (2007) Air–water exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Delaware River. Environ Sci Technol 41:1152–1158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schulz DE, Petrick G, Duinker JC (1989) Complete characterization of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in commercial aroclor and clophen mixtures by multidimensional gas chromatography-electron capture detection. Environ Sci Technol 23:852–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Shamekhi SS, Nourmohammadian F (2012) Crystal phase study of pigment red 254 in the presence of ionic liquids. Prog Color Colorants Coat 5:1–6Google Scholar
  39. Takasuga T, Senthilkumar K, Matsumura T, Shiozaki K, Sakai S (2006) Isotope dilution analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil and global commercial PCB formulations by high resolution gas chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry. Chemosphere 62:469–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wania F, Haugen JE, Lei YD, Mackay D (1998) Temperature dependence of atmospheric concentrations of semivolatile organic compounds. Environ Sci Technol 32:1013–1021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wethington DM, Hornbuckle KC (2005) Milwaukee, WI, as a source of atmospheric PCBs to Lake Michigan. Environ Sci Technol 39:57–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wu J, Teng M, Gao L, Zheng M (2011) Background air levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in China. Sci Total Environ 409:1818–1823CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hokkaido Research Organization, Environmental and Geological Research DepartmentInstitute of Environmental SciencesSapporoJapan
  2. 2.Center for Advanced Science and InnovationOsaka UniversityOsakaJapan

Personalised recommendations