Pharmaceutical residues in tidal surface sediments of three rivers in southeastern China at detectable and measurable levels
Pharmaceutical compounds were increasingly detected in environmental matrices but little is known whether these compounds would transport to coastal zones via watersheds. Three typical tidal rivers in southeastern China were selected and 15 surface sediment samples (0–10 cm) were collected along a 50-km tidal section of each river. Surface sediment samples were frozen-drying and then extracted for pharmaceutical compounds by an accelerated solvent extraction system. The pharmaceutical compounds in extracts were scanned using a high-performance liquid chromatography/tandern mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Three hundred and thirty compounds from nine pharmaceutical groups were detected with signal-to-noise above three (detectable level) in the surface sediments, of which 186 compounds were with a signal-to-noise above ten (measurable level). Of all, 291 and 80 compounds were detectable and measurable in all the three rivers, respectively. The Jiulong River showed a high load of pharmaceutical compounds in surface sediment than other two rivers. Of the nine pharmaceutical groups, the antihistamines and detoxification group and anti-infective drug group contributed five dominant compounds in the surface sediments in all the three rivers. Natures of pharmaceutical compounds rather than the sediment properties (pH, EC, and total carbon content) might influence their residues. The incredible number and intensity of pharmaceutical residues were detected in tidal surface sediments of the three rivers indicating that the pharmaceutical contamination should be strongly considered in China. Source identification and eco-toxicity assessment should be taken into account in the future study. Therapeutic medicine managements need to be strictly improved at a watershed scale to reduce loads of pharmaceuticals into aquatic ecosystems.
KeywordsPharmaceuticals Therapeutic groups Surface sediment Tidal rivers Southeastern China
This study was financially supported by “Knowledge Innovation Program” of Chinese Academy of Sciences (KZCX2-YW-JC402).
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