Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 20, Issue 12, pp 8751–8762

Occurrence, possible sources, and temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in water and sediment from the lower Yangtze River basin, Jiangsu and Shanghai areas of Eastern China

  • Zhiqiang Nie
  • Zhenwu Tang
  • Xiaohua Zhu
  • Yufei Yang
  • Haihui Fu
  • Qingqi Die
  • Qi Wang
  • Qifei Huang
Research Article

Abstract

The concentrations, compositional profiles, and possible sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) in water column and surface sediment samples from the lower reaches of the Yangtze River were investigated, and the potential risks posed by these chemicals were evaluated. Concentrations of the 17 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/PCDF in the water and sediment samples ranged from 0.45 to 10.0 pg TEQ/L (mean 2.34 pg TEQ/L) and from 0.31 to 51 pg TEQ/g dw (mean 5.25 pg TEQ/g dw), respectively. Water and sediments from the Nanjing–Nantong sections of the Yangtze River were found to have elevated PCDD/PCDF levels, and the PCDD/PCDF TEQ concentrations in 13 sediment samples exceeded the probable effect levels (PEL), above which adverse biological effects are likely. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated that the principal PCDD/PCDF contamination source for the water and sediment was the production and use of pentachlorophenol (PCP) or sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP-Na). PCDD/PCDF concentrations were stable over time near the Yangtze River Estuary but had increased sharply in recent decades in the Nanjing–Nantong section, which will have been related to the growth in industrial activities and other anthropogenic PCDD/PCDF sources. Total organic carbon (TOC) and PCDD/PCDF concentrations correlated significantly (R = 0.474, P < 0.01), suggesting that TOC plays an important role in the transport and re-distribution of PCDD/PCDF in the Yangtze River basin.

Keywords

PCDD/PCDF Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Lower reaches of Yangtze River Sources Risk Temporal trends 

Supplementary material

11356_2013_1832_MOESM1_ESM.docx (238 kb)
ESM 1(DOCX 238 kb)

References

  1. Alcock RE, Sweetman AJ, Jones KC (2001) A congener-specific PCDD/F emissions inventory for the UK: do current estimates account for the measured atmospheric burden? Chemosphere 43:183–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bao L-J, Maruya KA, Snyder SA, Zeng EY (2012) China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants. Environ Pollut 163:100–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Black RR, Meyer CP, Touati A, Gullett BK, Fiedler H, Mueller JF (2012) Emission factors for PCDD/F and dl-PCB from open burning of biomass. Environ Int 38:62–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bouloubassi I, Fillaux J, Saliot A (2001) Hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary, East China Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 42:1335–1346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brzuzy LP, Hites RA (1996) Global mass balance for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Environ Sci Technol 30:1797–1804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. CCME (2002) Council of Ministry of the Environment. Canadian environmental quality guidelines for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs)Google Scholar
  7. Cornelissen G, Gustafsson Ö, Bucheli TD, Jonker MTO, Koelmans AA, van Noort PCM (2005) Extensive sorption of organic compounds to black carbon, coal, and kerogen in sediments and soils: mechanisms and consequences for distribution, bioaccumulation, and biodegradation. Environ Sci Technol 39:6881–6895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Crisp TM, Clegg ED, Cooper RL, Wood WP, Anderson DG, Baetcke KP, Hoffmann JL, Morrow MS, Rodier DJ, Schaeffer JE (1998) Environmental endocrine disruption: an effects assessment and analysis. Environ Health Persp 106:11Google Scholar
  9. Edgar PJ, Hursthouse AS, Matthews JE, Davies IM (2003) An investigation of geochemical factors controlling the distribution of PCBs in intertidal sediments at a contamination hot spot, the Clyde Estuary, UK. Appl Geochem 18:327–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fiedler H (2007) National PCDD/F release inventories under the Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants. Chemosphere 67:S96–S108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Götz R, Sokollek V, Weber R (2012) The dioxin/POPs legacy of pesticide production in Hamburg: part 2—waste deposits and remediation of Georgswerder landfill. Environ Sci Pollut R 1–12Google Scholar
  12. Gu C, Hu L, Zhang X, Wang X, Guo J (2011) Climate change and urbanization in the Yangtze River Delta. Habitat Int 35:544–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Holt E, Von Der Recke R, Vetter W, Hawker D, Alberts V, Kuch B, Weber R, Gaus C (2008) Assessing dioxin precursors in pesticide formulations and environmental samples as a source of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in soil and sediment. Environ Sci Technol 42:1472–1478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Holt E, Weber R, Stevenson G, Gaus C (2010) Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) impurities in pesticides: a neglected source of contemporary relevance. Environ Sci Technol 44:5409–5415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hu J, Wan Y, Shao B, Jin X, An W, Jin F, Yang M, Wang X, Sugisaki M (2005) Occurrence of trace organic contaminants in Bohai Bay and its adjacent Nanpaiwu River, North China. Mar Chem 95:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hui Y, Zheng M, Liu Z, Gao L (2009) PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in sediments from Yellow Estuary and Yangtze Estuary, China. B Environ Contam Tox 83:614–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hung C-C, Gong G-C, Chen H-Y, Hsieh H-L, Santschi PH, Wade TL, Sericano JL (2007) Relationships between pesticides and organic carbon fractions in sediments of the Danshui River estuary and adjacent coastal areas of Taiwan. Environ Pollut 148:546–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Isosaari P, Kohonen T, Kiviranta H, Tuomisto J, Vartiainen T (2000) Assessment of levels, distribution, and risks of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the vicinity of a vinyl chloride monomer production plant. Environ Sci Technol 34:2684–2689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Isosaari P, Kankaanpää H, Mattila J, Kiviranta H, Verta M, Salo S, Vartiainen T (2002) Spatial distribution and temporal accumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in the Gulf of Finland. Environ Sci Technol 36:2560–2565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jeong GH, Kim HJ, Joo YJ, Kim YB, So HY (2001) Distribution characteristics of PCBs in the sediments of the lower Nakdong River, Korea. Chemosphere 44:1403–1411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Josefsson S, Karlsson OM, Malmaeus JM, Cornelissen G, Wiberg K (2011) Structure-related distribution of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and HCB in a river–sea system. Chemosphere 83:85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kim K-S, Shin S-K, Kim K-S, Song B-J, Kim J-G (2008) National monitoring of PCDD/DFs in environmental media around incinerators in Korea. Environ Int 34:202–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kim K-S, Lee SC, Kim K-H, Shim WJ, Hong SH, Choi KH, Yoon JH, Kim J-G (2009) Survey on organochlorine pesticides, PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and HCB in sediments from the Han river, Korea. Chemosphere 75:580–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lee KT, Tanabe S, Koh CH (2001) Contamination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from Kyeonggi Bay and nearby areas, Korea. Mar Pollut Bulletin 42:273–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Li C, Zheng M, Gao L, Zhang B, Liu L, Xiao K (2012a) Levels and distribution of PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides in sediments from the lower reaches of the Haihe River basin, China. Environ Monit Assess 1–13Google Scholar
  26. Li C, Zheng M, Zhang B, Gao L, Liu L, Zhou X, Ma X, Xiao K (2012b) Long-term persistence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in air, soil and sediment around an abandoned pentachlorophenol factory in China. Environ Pollut 162:138–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Liu H, Zhang Q, Wang Y, Cai Z, Jiang G (2007) Occurrence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls pollution in sediments from the Haihe River and Dagu Drainage River in Tianjin City, China. Chemosphere 68:1772–1778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Liu M, Yang Y, Hou L, Xu S, Ou D, Zhang B, Liu Q (2003) Chlorinated organic contaminants in surface sediments from the Yangtze Estuary and nearby coastal areas, China. Mar Pollut Bull 46:672–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Liu M, Cheng S, Ou D, Yang Y, Liu H, Hou L, Gao L, Xu S (2008a) Organochlorine pesticides in surface sediments and suspended particulate matters from the Yangtze estuary, China. Environ Pollut 156:168–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Liu W, Tao F, Zhang W, Li S, Zheng M (2012) Contamination and emission factors of PCDD/Fs, unintentional PCBs, HxCBz, PeCBz and polychlorophenols in chloranil in China. Chemosphere 86:248–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Liu WG, Wu Y (2006) The Yangtze River has been suffering from “early cancer”, pollution control in need. http://www.xinhuanet.com/chinanews/2006-03/01/content_6349953.htm
  32. Liu Y, Pa P, Li X, Zhang S, Ren M (2008b) Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in water and suspended particulate matter from the Xijiang River, China. J Hazard Mater 152:40–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Luksemburg WJ, Mitzel RS, Zhou H, Hedin JM, Silverbush BB, Wong AS (1996) Polychlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans in environmental samples from China. Organohal Compd 28:262–266Google Scholar
  34. Müller B, Berg M, Yao ZP, Zhang XF, Wang D, Pfluger A (2008) How polluted is the Yangtze river? Water quality downstream from the Three Gorges Dam. Sci Total Environ 402:232–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Müller JF, Gaus C, Prange JA, Päpke O, Fai Poon K, Lam MHW, Lam PKS (2002) Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in sediments from Hong Kong. Mar Pollut Bull 45:372–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mackay D, Shiu WY, Ma KC (1992) Illustrated handbook of physical–chemical properties and environmental fate for organic chemicals, vol II. Lewis, Chelsea, pp 368–566Google Scholar
  37. Martens D, Zhang A, Jiang X, Chen J, Gawlik B, Henkelmann B, Schramm KW, Kettrup A (2000) Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, pentachlorophenol, pentachloroanisole and hexachlorobenzene in sediments of the Yangtse River and the Liao-He River in China. Organohalogen Compd 46:431–434Google Scholar
  38. Masunaga S, Yao Y, Ogura I, Nakai S, Kanai Y, Yamamuro M, Nakanishi J (2001) Identifying sources and mass balance of dioxin pollution in Lake Shinji Basin, Japan. Environ Sci Technol 35:1967–1973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Moon H-B, Choi M, Choi H-G, Kannan K (2012) Severe pollution of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in sediments from Lake Shihwa, Korea: tracking the source. Mar Pollut Bull 64:2357–2363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Naile JE, Khim JS, Wang T, Wan Y, Luo W, Hu W, Jiao W, Park J, Ryu J, Hong S, Jones PD, Lu Y, Giesy JP (2011) Sources and distribution of polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans in soil and sediment from the Yellow Sea region of China and Korea. Environ Pollut 159:907–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Naito W, Jin J, Kang Y-S, Yamamuro M, Masunaga S, Nakanishi J (2003) Dynamics of PCDDs/DFs and coplanar-PCBs in an aquatic food chain of Tokyo Bay. Chemosphere 53:347–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ni J, Luo Y, Wei R, Li X (2008) Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particle-size separates and density fractions of typical agricultural soils in the Yangtze River Delta, east China. Eur J Soil Sci 59:1020–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nizzetto L, Macleod M, Borgå K, Cabrerizo A, Dachs J, Guardo AD, Ghirardello D, Hansen KM, Jarvis A, Lindroth A, Ludwig B, Monteith D, Perlinger JA, Scheringer M, Schwendenmann L, Semple KT, Wick LY, Zhang G, Jones KC (2010) Past, present, and future controls on levels of persistent organic pollutants in the global environment. Environ Sci Technol 44:6526–6531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pan J, Yang Y-L, Chen D-Z, Xu Q, Tang H, Li Y, Nie L-M, Jiang K, Xi D-L (2008) Distribution characteristics and source analysis of dioxins in sediments and mussels from Qingdao coastal sea. Chemosphere 70:1699–1706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pan J, Yang Y, Geng C, Yeung LWY, Cao X, Dai T (2010) Polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in marine and lacustrine sediments from the Shandong Peninsula, China. J Hazard Mater 176:274–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Prange JA, Gaus C, Päpke O, Müller JF (2002) Investigations into the PCDD contamination of topsoil, river sediments and kaolinite clay in Queensland, Australia. Chemosphere 46:1335–1342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ryoo KS, Ko S-O, Hong YP, Choi J-H, Cho S, Kim Y, Bae YJ (2005) Levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in Korean river sediments and their detection by biomarkers. Chemosphere 61:323–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Santl H, Gruber L, Stöhrer E (1994) Investigation on the input, formation and fate of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the pulp and paper industry. Chemosphere 29:1987–1994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sinkkonen S, Kämäräinen N, Paasivirta J, Lammi R (1997) PCDDs, PCDFs, PCDTs, PCBs and some other organochlorine compounds in pine needles exposed to pulp and paper mill emissions and effects of waste combustion on the concentrations. Chemosphere 35:2193–2202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sun Y, Zhang B, Gao L, Liu Z, Zheng M (2005) Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in surface sediments from the estuary area of Yangtze River, People's Republic of China. B Environ Contam Tox 75:910–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tang Z, Huang Q, Yang Y, Zhu X, Fu H (2013) Organochlorine pesticides in the lower reaches of Yangtze River: occurrence, ecological risk and temporal trends. Ecotox Environ Safe 87:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Torres JPM, Leite C, Krauss T, Weber R (2012) Landfill mining from a deposit of the chlorine/organochlorine industry as source of dioxin contamination of animal feed and assessment of the responsible processes. Environ Sci Pollut R 1–8Google Scholar
  53. UNEP (2011) Listing of POPs in annexes A, B and/or C to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. <http://chm.pops.int/Convention/ThePOPs/ListingofPOPs/tabid/2509/Default.aspx>
  54. Van den Berg M, Birnbaum LS, Denison M, De Vito M, Farland W, Feeley M, Fiedler H, Hakansson H, Hanberg A, Haws L, Rose M, Safe S, Schrenk D, Tohyama C, Tritscher A, Tuomisto J, Tysklind M, Walker N, Peterson RE (2006) The 2005 World Health Organization reevaluation of human and mammalian toxic equivalency factors for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Toxicol Sci 93:223–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wagrowski DM, Hites RA (2000) Insights into the global distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Environ Sci Technol 34:2952–2958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wania F, Mackay D (1996) Peer reviewed: tracking the distribution of persistent organic pollutants. Environ Sci Technol 30:390–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Weber R et al (2008) Dioxin- and POP-contaminated sites—contemporary and future relevance and challenges. Environ Sci Pollut R 15:363–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Weber R, Watson A, Forter M, Oliaei F (2011) Review article: persistent organic pollutants and landfills—a review of past experiences and future challenges. Waste Manage Res 29:107–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wen S, Hui Y, Yang F, Liu Z, Xu Y (2008) Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in surface sediment and bivalve from the Changjiang Estuary, China. Chin J Oceanol Limn 26:35–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yang H, Xue B, Jin L, Zhou S, Liu W (2011) Polychlorinated biphenyls in surface sediments of Yueqing Bay, Xiangshan Bay, and Sanmen Bay in East China Sea. Chemosphere 83:137–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yang H, Zhuo S, Xue B, Zhang C, Liu W (2012) Distribution, historical trends and inventories of polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent East China Sea. Environ Pollut 169:20–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Yang Z, Shen Z, Gao F, Tang Z, Niu J (2009) Occurrence and possible sources of polychlorinated biphenyls in surface sediments from the Wuhan reach of the Yangtze River, China. Chemosphere 74:1522–1530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yi Y, Yang Z, Zhang S (2011) Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment and human health risk assessment of heavy metals in fishes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin. Environ Pollut 159:2575–2585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zhang A, Fang L, Wang J, Liu W, Yuan H, Jantunen L, Li YF (2012) Residues of currently and never used organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soils from Zhejiang Province, China. J Agr Food Chem 60:2982–2988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zhang K, Zhang B-Z, Li S-M, Zeng EY (2011a) Regional dynamics of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Pearl River Delta, China: implications and perspectives. Environ Pollut 159:2301–2309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Zhang L, Shi S, Dong L, Zhang T, Zhou L, Huang Y (2011b) Concentrations and possible sources of polychlorinated biphenyls in the surface water of the Yangtze River Delta, China. Chemosphere 85:399–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zhang Q, Jiang G (2005) Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments and aquatic organisms from the Taihu Lake, China. Chemosphere 61:314–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Zhao X, Zhang H, Ni Y, Lu X, Zhang X, Su F, Fan J, Guan D, Chen J (2011) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediments of the Daliao River Estuary, China: levels, distribution and their influencing factors. Chemosphere 82:1262–1267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zheng MH, Bao ZC, Zhang B, Xu XB (2001) Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in paper making from a pulp mill in China. Chemosphere 44:1335–1337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Zhu JX, Hirai Y, Yu G, Sakai S (2008) Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in China and chemometric analysis of potential emission sources. Chemosphere 70:703–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhiqiang Nie
    • 1
  • Zhenwu Tang
    • 2
  • Xiaohua Zhu
    • 3
  • Yufei Yang
    • 1
  • Haihui Fu
    • 1
  • Qingqi Die
    • 1
  • Qi Wang
    • 1
  • Qifei Huang
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk AssessmentChinese Research Academy of Environmental SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy and Environmental Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research AcademyNorth China Electric Power UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.National Research Center for GeoanalysisBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations