Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 20, Issue 9, pp 6306–6316 | Cite as

Nitrate facilitates cadmium uptake, transport and accumulation in the hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola

  • Pengjie Hu
  • Yong-Gen Yin
  • Satoru Ishikawa
  • Nobuo Suzui
  • Naoki Kawachi
  • Shu Fujimaki
  • Masato Igura
  • Cheng Yuan
  • Jiexue Huang
  • Zhu Li
  • Tomoyuki Makino
  • Yongming Luo
  • Peter Christie
  • Longhua Wu
Research Article

Abstract

The aims of this study are to investigate whether and how the nitrogen form (nitrate (NO3) versus ammonium (NH4+)) influences cadmium (Cd) uptake and translocation and subsequent Cd phytoextraction by the hyperaccumulator species Sedum plumbizincicola. Plants were grown hydroponically with N supplied as either NO3 or NH4+. Short-term (36 h) Cd uptake and translocation were determined innovatively and quantitatively using a positron-emitting 107Cd tracer and positron-emitting tracer imaging system. The results show that the rates of Cd uptake by roots and transport to the shoots in the NO3 treatment were more rapid than in the NH4+ treatment. After uptake for 36 h, 5.6 (0.056 μM) and 29.0 % (0.290 μM) of total Cd in the solution was non-absorbable in the NO3 and NH4+ treatments, respectively. The local velocity of Cd transport was approximately 1.5-fold higher in roots (3.30 cm h−1) and 3.7-fold higher in shoots (10.10 cm h−1) of NO3- than NH4+-fed plants. Autoradiographic analysis of 109Cd reveals that NO3 nutrition enhanced Cd transportation from the main stem to branches and young leaves. Moreover, NO3 treatment increased Cd, Ca and K concentrations but inhibited Fe and P in the xylem sap. In a 21-day hydroponic culture, shoot biomass and Cd concentration were 1.51 and 2.63 times higher in NO3- than in NH4+-fed plants. We conclude that compared with NH4+, NO3 promoted the major steps in the transport route followed by Cd from solution to shoots in S. plumbizincicola, namely its uptake by roots, xylem loading, root-to-shoot translocation in the xylem and uploading to the leaves. S. plumbizincicola prefers NO3 nutrition to NH4+ for Cd phytoextraction.

Keywords

Ammonium Cadmium Nitrate Positron-emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS) Sedum plumbizincicola Transport Uptake Xylem sap 

Supplementary material

11356_2013_1680_MOESM1_ESM.mov (10.2 mb)
Supplementary Video S1Animation film of 107Cd dynamics in S. plumbizincicola fed with NO3 (left) and NH4+ (right). (MOV 10,489 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pengjie Hu
    • 1
  • Yong-Gen Yin
    • 2
  • Satoru Ishikawa
    • 3
  • Nobuo Suzui
    • 2
  • Naoki Kawachi
    • 2
  • Shu Fujimaki
    • 2
  • Masato Igura
    • 3
  • Cheng Yuan
    • 1
  • Jiexue Huang
    • 1
  • Zhu Li
    • 1
  • Tomoyuki Makino
    • 3
  • Yongming Luo
    • 4
  • Peter Christie
    • 5
  • Longhua Wu
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil ScienceChinese Academy of SciencesNanjingChina
  2. 2.Japan Atomic Energy AgencyGunmaJapan
  3. 3.National Institute for Agro-Environmental SciencesIbarakiJapan
  4. 4.Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone ResearchChinese Academy of SciencesYantaiChina
  5. 5.Agri-Environment BranchAgri-Food and Biosciences InstituteBelfastUK

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