Concomitant reduction and immobilization of chromium in relation to its bioavailability in soils
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In this study, two carbon materials [chicken manure biochar (CMB) and black carbon (BC)] were investigated for their effects on the reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in two spiked [600 mg Cr(VI) kg−1] and one tannery waste contaminated [454 mg Cr(VI) kg−1] soils. In spiked soils, both the rate and the maximum extent of reduction of Cr(VI) to trivalent Cr [Cr(III)] were higher in the sandy loam than clay soil, which is attributed to the difference in the extent of Cr(VI) adsorption between the soils. The highest rate of Cr(VI) reduction was observed in BC-amended sandy loam soil, where it reduced 452 mg kg−1 of Cr(VI), followed by clay soil (427 mg kg−1) and tannery soil (345 mg kg−1). X-ray photoelectron microscopy confirmed the presence of both Cr(VI) and Cr(III) species in BC within 24 h of addition of Cr(VI), which proved its high reduction capacity. The resultant Cr(III) species either adsorbs or precipitates in BC and CMB. The addition of carbon materials to the tannery soil was also effective in decreasing the phytotoxicity of Cr(VI) in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants. Therefore, it is concluded that the addition of carbon materials enhanced the reduction of Cr(VI) and the subsequent immobilization of Cr(III) in soils.
KeywordsChromium Black carbon Reduction Bioavailability Immobilization Soil
The authors are grateful to the Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Australia for funding this research work in collaboration with University of South Australia. The Postdoctoral fellowship program (PJ008650042012) at the National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea, supported Dr Kunhikrishnan’s contribution.
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