Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 22, Issue 12, pp 8969–8978 | Cite as

Concomitant reduction and immobilization of chromium in relation to its bioavailability in soils

  • Girish Choppala
  • Nanthi Bolan
  • Anitha Kunhikrishnan
  • William Skinner
  • Balaji Seshadri
Bioavailability - the underlying basis for Risk Based Land Management

Abstract

In this study, two carbon materials [chicken manure biochar (CMB) and black carbon (BC)] were investigated for their effects on the reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in two spiked [600 mg Cr(VI) kg−1] and one tannery waste contaminated [454 mg Cr(VI) kg−1] soils. In spiked soils, both the rate and the maximum extent of reduction of Cr(VI) to trivalent Cr [Cr(III)] were higher in the sandy loam than clay soil, which is attributed to the difference in the extent of Cr(VI) adsorption between the soils. The highest rate of Cr(VI) reduction was observed in BC-amended sandy loam soil, where it reduced 452 mg kg−1 of Cr(VI), followed by clay soil (427 mg kg−1) and tannery soil (345 mg kg−1). X-ray photoelectron microscopy confirmed the presence of both Cr(VI) and Cr(III) species in BC within 24 h of addition of Cr(VI), which proved its high reduction capacity. The resultant Cr(III) species either adsorbs or precipitates in BC and CMB. The addition of carbon materials to the tannery soil was also effective in decreasing the phytotoxicity of Cr(VI) in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants. Therefore, it is concluded that the addition of carbon materials enhanced the reduction of Cr(VI) and the subsequent immobilization of Cr(III) in soils.

Keywords

Chromium Black carbon Reduction Bioavailability Immobilization Soil 

Supplementary material

11356_2013_1653_MOESM1_ESM.docx (115 kb)
ESM 1(DOCX 114 kb)

References

  1. Adriano DC (2001) Trace elements in terrestrial environments: biogeochemistry, bioavailability, and risks of metals. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adriano DC, Wenzel WW, Vangronsveld J, Bolan NS (2004) Role of assisted natural remediation in environmental cleanup. Geoderma 122:121–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Avudainayagam S, Naidu R, Kookana RS, Alston AM, McClure S, Smith LH (2001) Effects of electrolyte composition on chromium desorption in soils contaminated by tannery waste. Aust J Soil Res 39:1077–1090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Banks M, Schwab A, Henderson C (2006) Leaching and reduction of chromium in soil as affected by soil organic content and plants. Chemosphere 62:255–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnhart J (1997) Occurrences, uses, and properties of chromium. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 26:S3–S7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beesley L, Moreno-Jiménez E, Gomez-Eyles JL (2010) Effects of biochar and greenwaste compost amendments on mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of inorganic and organic contaminants in a multi-element polluted soil. Environ Pollut 158:2282–2287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bolan NS, Kunhikrishnan A, Choppala GK, Thangarajan R, Chung JW (2012) Stabilization of carbon in composts and biochars in relation to carbon sequestration and soil fertility. Sci Total Environ 424:264–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bolan NS, Adriano DC, Natesan R, Koo BJ (2003) Effects of organic amendments on the reduction and phytoavailability of chromate in mineral soil. J Environ Qual 32:120–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bolan NS, Thiagarajan S (2001) Retention and plant availability of chromium in soils as affected by lime and organic matter amendments. Aust J Soil Res 39:1091–1104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boni MR, Sbaffoni S (2009) The potential of compost-based biobarriers for Cr (VI) removal from contaminated groundwater: column test. J Hazard Mater 166:1087–1095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brodie EL, Joyner DC, Faybishenko B, Conrad ME, Rios-Velazquez C, Malave J, Martinez R, Mork B, Willett A, Koenigsberg S (2011) Microbial community response to addition of polylactate compounds to stimulate hexavalent chromium reduction in groundwater. Chemosphere 85:660–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carey PL, McLaren RG, Cameron KC, Sedcole JR (1996) Leaching of copper, chromium, and arsenic through some free-draining New Zealand soils. Aust J Soil Res 34:583–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen CP, Juang KW, Lin TH, Lee DY (2010) Assessing the phytotoxicity of chromium in Cr(VI)-spiked soils by Cr speciation using XANES and resin extractable Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Plant Soil 334:299–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen JP, Wu S (2004) Acid/base-treated activated carbons: characterization of functional groups and metal adsorptive properties. Langmuir 20:2233–2242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chiu CC, Cheng CJ, Lin TH, Juang KW, Lee DY (2009) The effectiveness of four organic matter amendments for decreasing resin-extractable Cr(VI) in Cr(VI)-contaminated soils. J Hazard Mater 161:1239–1244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Choppala GK, Bolan NS, Chen Z, Megaharaj M, Naidu R (2012) The influence of biochar and black carbon on reduction and bioavailability of chromate in soils. J Environ Qual 41:1175–1184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cifuentes FR, Lindemann WC, Barton LL (1996) Chromium sorption and reduction in soil with implications to bioremediation. Soil Sci 161:233–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dai R, Liu J, Yu C, Sun R, Lan Y, Mao JD (2009) A comparative study of oxidation of Cr (III) in aqueous ions, complex ions and insoluble compounds by manganese-bearing mineral (birnessite). Chemosphere 76:536–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fandeur D, Juillot F, Morin G, Olivi L, Cognigni A, Webb SM, Ambrosi JP, Fritsch E, Guyot F, Brown GE Jr (2009) XANES evidence for oxidation of Cr (III) to Cr (VI) by Mn-oxides in a lateritic regolith developed on serpentinized ultramafic rocks of New Caledonia. Environ Sci Technol 43:7384–7390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fendorf SE, Lamble GM, Stapleton MG, Kelley MJ, Sparks DL (1994) Mechanisms of chromium (III) sorption on silica. 1. Chromium(III) surface structure derived by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Environ Sci Technol 28:284–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Frankenberger Jr W, Losi M (1995) Applications of bioremediation in the cleanup of heavy metals and metalloids. In H.D. Skipper and R.F. Turco (eds.) Bioremediation: science and applications. SSSA Special Publ. 43. SSSA, Madison, WI, pp 173–210Google Scholar
  22. Gardea-Torresdey J, Tiemann K, Armendariz V, Bess-Oberto L, Chianelli R, Rios J, Parsons J, Gamez G (2000) Characterization of Cr(VI) binding and reduction to Cr (III) by the agricultural byproducts of Avena monida (oat) biomass. J Hazard Mater 80:175–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Han FX, Sridhar BB, Monts DL, Su Y (2004) Phytoavailability and toxicity of trivalent and hexavalent chromium to Brassica juncea. New Phytol 162:489–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hsu NH, Wang SL, Lin YC, Sheng GD, Lee JF (2009) Reduction of Cr(VI) by crop-residue-derived black carbon. Environ Sci Technol 43:8801–8806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Huang H, Zhang S, Wu N, Luo L, Christie P (2009) Influence of Glomus etunicatum/Zea mays mycorrhiza on atrazine degradation, soil phosphatase and dehydrogenase activities, and soil microbial community structure. Soil Biol Biochem 41:726–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. James BR (1996) The challenge of remediating chromium-contaminated soil. Environ Sci Technol 30:248–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jardine PM, Fendorf SE, Mayes MA, Larsen IL, Brooks SC, Bailey WB (1999) Fate and transport of hexavalent chromium in undisturbed heterogeneous soil. Environ Sci Technol 3:2939–2944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Joseph SD, Camps-Arbestain M, Lin Y, Munroe P, Chia CH, Hook J, Van Zwieten L, Kimber S, Cowie A, Singh BP (2010) An investigation into the reactions of biochar in soil. Soil Res 48:501–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kagwade SV, Clayton CR, Halada GP (2001) Causes and prevention of photochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium during x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Surf Interface Anal 31:442–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kilic E, Puig R, Baquero G, Font J, Colak S, Guerler D (2011) Environmental optimization of chromium recovery from tannery sludge using a life cycle assessment approach. J Hazard Mater 192:393–401Google Scholar
  31. Kookana RS (2010) The role of biochar in modifying the environmental fate, bioavailability, and efficacy of pesticides in soils: a review. Soil Res 48:627–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kookana RS, Sarmah AK, Van Zwieten L, Krull E, Singh B (2011) Biochar application to soil: agronomic and environmental benefits and unintended consequences. Adv Agron 112:103–143Google Scholar
  33. Kumpiene J, Lagerkvist A, Maurice C (2007) Stabilization of Pb-and Cu-contaminated soil using coal fly ash and peat. Environ Pollut 145:365–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lan Y, Deng B, Kim C, Thornton EC (2007) Influence of soil minerals on chromium(VI) reduction by sulfide under anoxic conditions. Geochem Trans 8:4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Landrot G, Ginder-Vogel M, Sparks DL (2009) Kinetics of chromium (III) oxidation by manganese (IV) oxides using quick scanning X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (Q-XAFS). Environ Sci Technol 44:143–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lee DY, Shih YN, Zheng HC, Chen CP, Juang KW, Lee JF, Tsui L (2006) Using the selective ion exchange resin extraction and XANES methods to evaluate the effect of compost amendments on soil chromium (VI) phytotoxicity. Plant Soil 281:87–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Leita L, Margon A, Pastrello A, Arcon I, Contin M, Mosetti D (2009) Soil humic acids may favour the persistence of hexavalent chromium in soil. Environ Pollut 157:1862–1866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Leita L, Margon A, Sinicco T, Mondini C (2011) Glucose promotes the reduction of hexavalent chromium in soil. Geoderma 164:122–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Liu D, Zou J, Wang M, Jiang W (2008) Hexavalent chromium uptake and its effects on mineral uptake, antioxidant defence system and photosynthesis in Amaranthus viridis L. Bioresour Technol 99:2628–2636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Losi ME, Amrhein C, Frankenberger WT Jr (1994) Factors affecting chemical and biological reduction of hexavalent chromium in soil. Environ Toxicol Chem 13:1727–1735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Oliver DS, Bowman RS, Brockman FJ, Kieft TL (2003) Microbial reduction of hexavalent chromium under vadose zone conditions. J Environ Qual 32:317–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Owlad M, Aroua MK, Daud WAW, Baroutian S (2009) Removal of hexavalent chromium-contaminated water and wastewater: a review. Water Air Soil Pollut 200:59–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Parfitt RL (1978) Anion adsorption by soils and soil materials. Adv Agron 30:1–50Google Scholar
  44. Park D, Ahn CK, Kim YM, Yun YS, Park JM (2008) Enhanced abiotic reduction of Cr(VI) in a soil slurry system by natural biomaterial addition. J Hazard Mater 160:422–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Park D, Yun YS, Park JM (2004) Reduction of hexavalent chromium with the brown seaweed Ecklonia biomass. Environ Sci Technol 38:4860–4864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Park D, Yun YS, Lee DS, Lim SR, Park JM (2006) Column study on Cr(VI)-reduction using the brown seaweed Ecklonia biomass. J Hazard Mater 137:1377–1384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Park JH, Lamb D, Paneerselvam P, Choppala G, Bolan N, Chung JW (2011) Role of organic amendments on enhanced bioremediation of heavy metal (loid) contaminated soils. J Hazard Mater 185:549–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Qiu Y, Cheng H, Xu C, Sheng GD (2008) Surface characteristics of crop-residue-derived black carbon and lead (II) adsorption. Water Res 42:567–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rayment GE, Higginson FR (1992) Australian laboratory handbook of soil and water chemical methods. Inkata Press Pty Ltd, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  50. Schwab P, Zhu D, Banks MK (2007) Heavy metal leaching from mine tailings as affected by organic amendments. Bioresour Technol 98:2935–2941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shanker AK, Cervantes C, Loza-Tavera H, Avudainayagam S (2005) Chromium toxicity in plants. Environ Int 31:739–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Skinner WM, Prestidge CA, Smart RSC (1996) Irradiation effects during XPS studies of Cu (II) activation of zinc sulphide. Surf Interface Anal 24:620–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Steinbeiss S, Gleixner G, Antonietti M (2009) Effect of biochar amendment on soil carbon balance and soil microbial activity. Soil Biol Biochem 41:1301–1310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tokunaga SR, Firestone MK, Olson KR, Wan J, Sutton TK, Lanzirotti A, Hazen TC, Herman DJ (2003) In situ reduction of chromium (VI) in heavily contaminated soils through organic carbon amendment. J Environ Qual 32:1641–1649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Uluozlu OD, Sari A, Tuzen M, Soylak M (2008) Biosorption of Pb (II) and Cr (III) from aqueous solution by lichen Parmelina tiliaceae biomass. Bioresour Technol 99:2972–2980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. USEPA, Chromium, Hexavalent (colorimetric) (1995) Test methods for evaluating solid waste, physical/chemical methods. SW–846. In USEPA: USAGoogle Scholar
  57. Weng CH, Huang CP, Sanders PF (2002) Transport of Cr (VI) in soils contaminated with chromite ore processing residue (COPR). Pract Period Hazard Toxic Radioactive Waste Manage 6:6–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Yang L, Chen JP (2008) Biosorption of hexavalent chromium onto raw and chemically modified Sargassum sp. Bioresour Technol 99:297–307Google Scholar
  59. Zarcinas BA, Cartwright B, Spouncer LR (1987) Nitric acid digestion and multi-element analysis of plant material by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Comm Soil Sci Plant Anal 18:131–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zhitkovich A (2011) Chromium in drinking water: sources, metabolism and cancer risks. Chem Res Toxicol 24(10):1617–1629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zhong L, Yang J (2012) Reduction of Cr(VI) by malic acid in aqueous Fe-rich soil suspensions. Chemosphere 86:973–978CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Girish Choppala
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nanthi Bolan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Anitha Kunhikrishnan
    • 3
  • William Skinner
    • 4
  • Balaji Seshadri
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building–XUniversity of South AustraliaAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the EnvironmentSalisburyAustralia
  3. 3.Chemical Safety Division, Department of Agro-Food SafetyNational Academy of Agricultural ScienceSuwon-siRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Ian Wark Research InstituteUniversity of South AustraliaAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations