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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 20, Issue 11, pp 8045–8056 | Cite as

Effects of perfluoroalkyl acids on the function of the thyroid hormone and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

  • Manhai Long
  • Mandana Ghisari
  • Eva Cecilie Bonefeld-Jørgensen
Nordic Research on Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs)

Abstract

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are perfluorinated compounds that widely exist in the environment and can elicit adverse effects including endocrine disruption in humans and animals. This study investigated the effect of seven PFAAs on the thyroid hormone (TH) system assessing the proliferation of the 3,3′,5-triiodo-l-thryonine (T3)-dependent rat pituitary GH3 cells using the T-screen assay and the effect on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transactivation in the AhR-luciferase reporter gene bioassay. A dose-dependent impact on GH3 cells was observed in the range 1 × 10−9–1 × 10−4 M: seven PFAAs (perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA)) inhibited the GH3 cell growth, and four PFAAs (PFOS, PFHxS, PFNA, and PFUnA) antagonized the T3-induced GH3 cell proliferation. At the highest test concentration, PFHxS showed a further increase of the T3-induced GH3 growth. Among the seven tested PFAAs, only PFDoA and PFDA elicited an activating effect on the AhR. In conclusion, PFAAs possess in vitro endocrine-disrupting potential by interfering with TH and AhR functions, which need to be taken into consideration when assessing the impact on human health.

Keywords

Perfluoroalkyl acids Thyroid hormone Aryl hydrocarbon receptor Transcriptional activity In vitro 

Abbreviations

ADHD

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders

AhR

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor

AhR-tact

AhR transactivity

AR

Androgen receptor

CV

Coefficient of variation

CYP

Cytochrome P450

DMSO

Dimethyl sulfoxide

EDCs

Endocrine-disrupting compounds

EC50

Half maximal effect concentration

EC100

Maximum effect concentration

ER

Estrogen receptor

HAHs

Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon

LDH

Lactate dehydrogenases

LOEC

Lowest observed effect concentration

PAHs

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

PCBs

Polychlorinated biphenols

PFAAs

Perfluoroalkyl acids

PFCs

Perfluorinated compounds

PFCAs

Perfluorocarboxylated acids

PFSAs

Perfluorosulfonated acids

POPs

Persistent organic pollutants

PPAR

Proliferator-activated receptor

PE

Proliferative effect

REP

Relative potency

RPE

Relative proliferative effect

TCDD

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

TH

Thyroid hormone

TR

Thyroid hormone receptor

T3

3,3′,5-Triiodo-l-thryonine

T4

Throxin

T-screen

Thyroid hormone-dependent GH3 cell growth

TTR

Transthyretin

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the Danish Strategic Research Council and Aarhus University. We thank lab-technician Dorte Olsson for the technical support in performing the in vitro T-screen and AhR transactivation bioassays.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manhai Long
    • 1
  • Mandana Ghisari
    • 1
  • Eva Cecilie Bonefeld-Jørgensen
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Arctic Health and Unit of Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, Department of Public HealthAarhus UniversityAarhus CDenmark

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