Dechlorination and organohalide-respiring bacteria dynamics in sediment samples of the Yangtze Three Gorges Reservoir
- 562 Downloads
Several groups of bacteria such as Dehalococcoides spp., Dehalobacter spp., Desulfomonile spp., Desulfuromonas spp., or Desulfitobacterium spp. are able to dehalogenate chlorinated pollutants such as chloroethenes, chlorobenzenes, or polychlorinated biphenyls under anaerobic conditions. In order to assess the dechlorination potential in Yangtze sediment samples, the presence and activity of the reductively dechlorinating bacteria were studied in anaerobic batch tests. Eighteen sediment samples were taken in the Three Gorges Reservoir catchment area of the Yangtze River, including the tributaries Jialing River, Daning River, and Xiangxi River. Polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated the presence of dechlorinating bacteria in most samples, with varying dechlorinating microbial community compositions at different sampling locations. Subsequently, anaerobic reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethene (PCE) was tested after the addition of electron donors. Most cultures dechlorinated PCE completely to ethene via cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) or trans-dichloroethene. Dehalogenating activity corresponded to increasing numbers of Dehalobacter spp., Desulfomonile spp., Desulfitobacterium spp., or Dehalococcoides spp. If no bacteria of the genus Dehalococcoides spp. were present in the sediment, reductive dechlorination stopped at cis-DCE. Our results demonstrate the presence of viable dechlorinating bacteria in Yangtze samples, indicating their relevance for pollutant turnover.
KeywordsYangtze Tetrachloroethene Reductive dechlorination Desulfitobacterium spp. Dehalococcoides spp. qPCR
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, grant no.: 02WT1130). This study is part of the Sino-German Yangtze-Hydro Project (www.yangtze-project.de).
- Behrens S, Azizian MF, McMurdie PJ, Sabalowsky A, Dolan M, Semprini L, Spormann AM (2008) Monitoring abundance and expression of Dehalococcoides species chloroethene-reductive dehalogenases in a tetrachloroethene-dechlorinating flow column. Appl Environ Microb 74:5695–5703. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00926-08 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- El Fantroussi S, Mahillon J, Naveau H, Agathos SN (1997) Introduction of anaerobic dechlorinating bacteria into soil slurry microcosms and nested-PCR monitoring. Appl Environ Microb 63:806–811Google Scholar
- Hendrickson ER, Payne JA, Young RM, Starr MG, Perry MP, Fahnestock S et al (2002) Molecular analysis of Dehalococcoides 16S ribosomal DNA from chloroethene-contaminated sites throughout North America and Europe. Appl Environ Microb 68:485–495. doi: 10.1128/AEM.68.2.485-495.2002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Holliger C, Schraa G, Stams AJ, Zehnder AJ (1993) A highly purified enrichment culture couples the reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethene to growth. Appl Environ Microb 59:2991–2997Google Scholar
- Kranzioch I, Tiehm A (2012) Assessment of pollutant biodegradation at the Yangtze Three Gorges Dam, China. Int J Water Management “blue facts” 2012:70–77Google Scholar
- Liu H, Zhou Q, Wang Y, Zhang Q, Cai Z, Jiang G (2008) E-waste recycling induced polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans pollution in the ambient environment. Environ Int 34:67–72. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2007.07.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Löffler FE, Yan J, Ritalahti KM, Adrian L, Edwards EA, Konstantinidis KT et al (2012) Dehalococcoides mccartyi gen. nov., sp. nov., obligate organohalide-respiring anaerobic bacteria, relevant to halogen cycling and bioremediation, belong to a novel bacterial class, Dehalococcoidetes classis nov., within the phylum Chloroflexi. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.034926-0
- Shen C, Tang X, Cheema SA, Zhang C, Khan MI, Liang F et al (2009) Enhanced phytoremediation potential of polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated soil from e-waste recycling area in the presence of randomly methylated-beta-cyclodextrins. J Hazard Mater 172:1671–1676. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.08.064 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Smits THM, Devenoges C, Szynalski K, Maillard J, Holliger C (2004) Development of a real-time PCR method for quantification of the three genera Dehalobacter, Dehalococcoides, and Desulfitobacterium in microbial communities. J Microbiol Meth 57:369–378. doi: 10.1016/j.mimet.2004.02.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar