Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 20, Issue 5, pp 2828–2843 | Cite as

Sorption of pollutants by porous carbon, carbon nanotubes and fullerene- An overview

  • Vinod K. GuptaEmail author
  • Tawfik A. Saleh
Review Article


The quality of water is continuously deteriorating due to its increasing toxic threat to humans and the environment. It is imperative to perform treatment of wastewater in order to remove pollutants and to get good quality water. Carbon materials like porous carbon, carbon nanotubes and fullerene have been extensively used for advanced treatment of wastewaters. In recent years, carbon nanomaterials have become promising adsorbents for water treatment. This review attempts to compile relevant knowledge about the adsorption activities of porous carbon, carbon nanotubes and fullerene related to various organic and inorganic pollutants from aqueous solutions. A detailed description of the preparation and treatment methods of porous carbon, carbon nanotubes and fullerene along with relevant applications and regeneration is also included.


Porous carbon Carbon nanotubes Fullerene Adsorption Pollutants 



T. Saleh acknowledges the support of Chemistry department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) Dhahran, Saudi Arabia and V. K. Gupta acknowledges the support of DST Gov. of India, New Delhi, for supporting through WTI.


  1. Abram FSH, Sims IR (1982) The toxicity of aniline to rainbow trout. Water Res 16:1309–1312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ademiluyi FT, Amadi SA, Amakama NJ (2009) Adsorption and treatment of organic contaminants using activated carbon from waste Nigerian bamboo. J Appl Sci Environ Manag 13:39–47Google Scholar
  3. Afkhami A, Madrakian T, Amini A, Karimi Z (2008) Effect of the impregnation of carbon cloth with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on its adsorption capacity for the adsorption of several metal ions. J Hazard Mater 150:408–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agnihotri S, Rood MJ, Rostam-Abadi M (2005) Adsorption equilibrium of organic vapors on single-walled carbon nanotubes. Carbon 43:2379–2388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ai L, Zhang C, Liao F, Wang Y, Li M, Meng L, Jiang J (2011) Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution with magnetite loaded multi-wall carbon nanotube: kinetic, isotherm and mechanism analysis. J Hazard Mater 30:282–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Al-Degs YS, El-Barghouthi MI, El-Sheikh AH, Walker GM (2008) Effect of solution pH, ionic strength, and temperature on adsorption behavior of reactive dyes on activated carbon. Dyes Pigments 77:16–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Altenor S, Carene B, Emmanuel E, Lambert J, Ehrhardt J-J, Gaspard S (2009) Adsorption studies of methylene blue and phenol onto vetiver roots activated carbon prepared by chemical activation. J Hazard Mater 165:1029–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Álvarez PM, Beltrán FJ, Gómez-Serrano V, Jaramillo J, Rodríguez EM (2004) Comparison between thermal and ozone regenerations of spent activated carbon exhausted with phenol. Water Res 38:2155–2165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Amais RS, Ribeiro JS, Segatelli MG, Yoshida IVP, Luccas PO, Tarley CRT (2007) Assessment of nanocomposite alumina supported on multi-wall carbon nanotubes as sorbent for on-line nickel preconcentration in water samples. Sep Purif Technol 58:122–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Amao Y, Asai K, Okura I (2000) A novel optical oxygen sensing system based on triplet–triplet reflectance of fullerene C60-polystyrene film by time-resolved spectroscopy using diffuse reflectance laser flash photolysis. Analyst 125:523–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ania CO, Parra JB, Menéndez JA, Pis JJ (2005) Effect of microwave and conventional regeneration on the microporous and mesoporous network and on the adsorptive capacity of activated carbons. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 85:7–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Arulkumar M, Sathishkumar P, Palvannan T (2011) Optimization of Orange G dye adsorption by activated carbon of Thespesia populnea pods using response surface methodology. J Hazard Mater 186:827–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Aviles F, Cauich-Rodríguez JV, Moo-Tah L, May-Pat A, Vargas-Coronado R (2009) Evaluation of mild acid oxidation treatments for MWCNT functionalization. Carbon 47:2970–2975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ayranci E, Duman O (2006) Adsorption of aromatic organic acids onto high area activated carbon cloth in relation to wastewater purification. J Hazard Mater B 136:542–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ballesteros E, Gallego M, Valcarcel M (2000) Analytical potential of fullerene as adsorbent for organic and organometallic compounds from aqueous solutions. J Chromatogr 869:101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bansal RC, Goyal M, Bansal RC, Goyal M (eds) (2005) Adsorption in activated carbon adsorption. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  17. Baquero MC, Giraldo L, Moreno JC, Suárez-García F, Martínez-Alonso A, Tascón JMD (2003) Activated carbons by pyrolysis of coffee bean husks in presence of phosphoric acid. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 70:779–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Berezkin VI, Viktorovski LV, Vul AY (2002) A comparative study of the sorption capacity ofactivated charcoal, soot, and fullerenes for organochlorine compounds. Tech Phys Lett 28:885–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Berezkin VI, Viktorovski LV, Vul AY (2003) Fullerene single crystals as adsorbents of organic compounds. Semiconductors 37:775–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bianco A, Gasparrini F, Maggini M (1997) Molecular recognition by a silica-bound fullerene derivative. Am Chem Soc 119:7550–7554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bina B, Pourzamani H, Rashidi A, Amin MM (2012) Ethylbenzene removal by carbon nanotubes from aqueous solution. J Environ Public Health 2012:817187Google Scholar
  22. Blanco-Martnez DA, Giraldo L, Moreno-Pirajan JC (2009) Effect of the pH in the adsorption and in the immersion enthalpy of monohydroxylated phenols from aqueous solutions on activated carbons. J Hazard Mater 169:291–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Boehm HP (1994) Some aspects of the surface chemistry of carbon blacks and other carbons. Carbon 32:759–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bradder P, Ling S, Wang S, Liu S (2011) Dye adsorption on layered graphite oxide. J Chem Eng Data 56:138–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chakrapani N, Zhang YM, Nayak SK, Moore JA, Carroll DL, Choi YY, Ajayan PM (2003) Chemisorption of acetone on carbon nanotubes. J Phys Chem B 107:9308–9311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chan BM, Cha SI, Kim KT, Lee KH, Hong SH (2005) Fabrication of carbon nanotube reinforced alumina matrix nanocomposite by sol–gel process. Mater Sci Eng, A 395:124–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chang PH, Jean JS, Jiang WT, Li ZH (2009) Mechanism of tetracycline sorption on rectorite. Colloids Surf A 339:94–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chen YY, Fang PF, Zeng ZR, Fan JH (1999) Synthesis of linear fullerene-containing polysiloxanes and their application to capillary gas chromatography. Chem Lett 28:499–500Google Scholar
  29. Chen RJ, Zhang Y, Wang D, Dai H (2001) Noncovalent sidewall functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes for protein immobilization. J Am Chem Soc 123:3838–3839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chen C, Hu J, Shao D, Li J, Wang X (2009) Adsorption behavior of multiwall carbon nanotube/iron oxide magnetic composites for Ni (II) and Sr (II). J Hazard Mater 164:923–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cheng X, Kan AT, Tomson MB (2004) Naphthalene adsorption and desorption from aqueous C60 fullerene. J Chem Eng Data 49:675–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cheng X, Kan AT, Tomson MB (2005) Uptake and sequestration of naphthalene and 1,2-dichlorobenzene by C60. J Nanoparticle Res 7:555–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chiang Y, Lin WH, Chang YC (2011) The influence of treatment duration on multi-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized by H2SO4/HNO3 oxidation. Appl Surf Sci 257:2401–2410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cho HH, Wepasnick K, Smith BA, Bangash FK, Fairbrother DH, Ball WP (2010) Sorption of aqueous Zn[II] and Cd[II] by multiwall carbon nanotubes: the relative roles of oxygen-containing functional groups and graphenic carbon. Langmuir 26:967–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Choy KKH, Porter JF, McKay G (2004) Intraparticle diffusion in single and multicomponent acid dye adsorption from wastewater onto carbon. Chem Eng J 103:133–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Chu H, Wei L, Cui R, Wang J, Li Y (2010) Carbon nanotubes combined with inorganic nanomaterials: preparations and applications. Coord Chem Rev 254:1117–1120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Chuang C-L, Chiang P-C, Chang EE (2003) Kinetics of benzene adsorption onto activated carbon. Environ Sci Pollut Res 10:6–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Clarke EA, Anliker R (1980) Organic dyes and pigments. In: The handbook of environmental chemistry, vol. 3. Part A. Anthropogenic compounds. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  39. Coughlin RW, Ezra FS (1968) Role of surface acidity in the adsorption of organic pollutants on the surface of carbon. Environ Sci Technol 2:291–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Crespo D, Yang RT (2006) Adsorption of organic vapors on single-walled carbon nanotubes. Ind Eng Chem Res 45:5524–5530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Crini G (2006) Non-conventional low-cost adsorbents for dye removal: a review. Bioresour Technol 97:1061–1085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Cuentas-Gallegos AK, Martínez-Rosales R, Rincón ME, Hirata GA, Orozco G (2006) Design of hybrid materials based on carbon nanotubes and polyoxometalates. Opt Mater 29:126–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dabrowski A (2001) Adsorption, from theory to practice. Adv Colloid Interf Sci 93:135–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dabrowski A, Podkoscielny P, Hubicki Z, Barczak M (2005) Adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbon—a critical review. Chemosphere 58:1049–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Datye, Wu KH, Gomes G, Monroy V, Lin HT, Jozef V, Vanmeensel K (2010) Synthesis, microstructure and mechanical properties of yttria stabilized zirconia (3YTZP)–multi-walled nanotube (MWNTs) nanocomposite by direct in-situ growth of MWNTs on zirconia particles. Compos Sci Technol 70:2086–2092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Diao Y, Walawender WP, Fan LT (2002) Activated carbons prepared fromphosphoric acid activation of grain sorghum. Bioresour Technol 81:45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Droste RL (1997) Theory and practice of water and wastewater treatment. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  48. Dursun AY, Kalayci CS (2005) Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the adsorption of phenol onto chitin. J Hazard Mater 123:151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Eder D (2010) Carbon nanotube-inorganic hybrids. Chem Rev 110:1348–1352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Estili M, Kawasaki A (2008) An approach to mass-producing individually alumina-decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes with optimized and controlled compositions. Scr Mater 58:906–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fang PF, Zeng ZR, Fan JH, Chen YY (2000) Synthesis and characteristics of C60 fullerene polysiloxane stationary phase for capillary gas chromatography. Chromatogr Abstr 867:177–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ferner DJ (2001) Toxicity, heavy metals. EMed J 2(5):1Google Scholar
  53. Figueroa RA, Mackay AA (2005) Sorption of oxytetracycline to iron oxides and iron oxide-rich soils. Environ Sci Technol 39:6664–6671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Figueroa RA, Leonard A, Mackay AA (2004) Modeling tetracycline antibiotic sorption to clays. Environ Sci Technol 38:476–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Flahaut E, Peigney A, Laurent C, MarlieRe C, Chastel F, Rousset A (2000) Carbon nanotube–metal–oxide nanocomposites: microstructure, electrical conductivity and mechanical properties. Acta Mater 48:3803–3812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Franklin LB (1991) Wastewater engineering: treatment, disposal and reuse. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Freundlich HMF (1906) Uber die adsorption in losungen. J Phys Chem 57:385–470Google Scholar
  58. Gallego M, Petit de Pefia Y, Valcarcel M (1994) Fullerenes as sorbent materials for metal preconcentration. Anal Chem 66:4074–4078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gao B, Peng C, Chen GZ, Puma GL (2008) Photo-electro-catalysis enhancement on carbon nanotubes/titanium dioxide (CNTs/TiO2) composite prepared by a novel surfactant wrapping sol–gel method. Appl Catal B Environ 85:17–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Garg UK, Kaur MP, Garg VK, Sud D (2007) Removal of hexavalent Cr from aqueous solutions by agricultural waste biomass. J Hazard Mater 140:60–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gaspard S, Altenor S, Dawson EA, Barnes P, Ouensanga A (2007) Activated carbon from vetiver roots: gas and liquid adsorption studies. J Hazard Mater 144:73–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gavalas VG, Chaniotakis NA (1998) C60 Fullerene mediated amperometric biosensors. Anal Chim Acta 409:131–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Geng Q, Guo Q, Cao C, Wang L (2008) Investigation into nanoTiO2/ACSPCR for decomposition of aqueous hydroquinone. Ind Eng Chem Res 47:2561–2568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Glausch, Hirsch A, Lamparth I, Schurig V (1998) Retention behaviour of polychlorinated biphenyls on polysiloxane-anchored C60 in gas chromatography. Chromatogr A 809:252–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Goering J, Kadossov E, Burghaus U (2008) Adsorption kinetics of alcohols on single wall carbon nanotubes: an ultra high vacuum surface chemistry study. J Phys Chem C 112:10114–10124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Golovnya RV, Terenina MB, Ruchkina EL, Karnatsevich VL (1993) Fullerene C60 as a new stationary-phase in capillary gas-chromatography. Mendeleev Commun 119:231–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Gondal MA, Drmosh QA, Saleh TA (2009) Synthesis of ZnO2 nanoparticles by laser ablation in liquid and their annealing transformation into ZnO nanoparticles. Appl Surf Sci 256:298–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gong R, Li M, Yang C, Sun Y, Chen J (2005) Removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solution by adsorption on peanut hull. J Hazard Mater B 121:247–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Gong JL, Wang B, Zeng GM, Yang CP, Niu CG, Niu Q, Zhou WJ, Liang Y (2009) Removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solution using magnetic multi-wall carbon nanotube nanocomposite as adsorbent. J Hazard Mater 164:1517–1522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Gotovac S, Hattori Y, Noguchi D, Miyamoto J, Kanamaru M, Utsumi S, Kanoh H, Kaneko K (2006) Phenanthrene adsorption from solution on single wall carbon nanotubes. J Phys Chem B 110:16219–16224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gotovac S, Song L, Kanoh H, Kaneko K (2007) Assembly structure control of single wall carbon nanotubes with liquid phase naphthalene adsorption. Colloid Surf 300:117–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Goyal RN, Gupta VK, Sangal A, Bachheti N (2005) Voltammetric determination of uric acid at a fullerene-C60-modified glassy carbon electrode. Electroanalysis 17(24):2217–2223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Goyal RN, Gupta VK, Bachheti N (2007a) Voltammetric determination of adenosine and guanosine using fullerene-C60-modified glassy carbon electrode. Talanta 71(3):1110–1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Goyal RN, Gupta VK, Bachheti N (2007b) Fullerene-C60-modified electrode as a sensitive voltammetric sensor for detection of nandrolone. Anal Chim Acta 597:82–89Google Scholar
  75. Goyal RN, Gupta VK, Bachheti N, Sharma RA (2008a) Electrochemical sensor for the determination of dopamine in presence of high concentration of ascorbic acid using a fullerene-C60 coated gold electrode. Electroanalysis 20:757–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Goyal RN, Oyama M, Gupta VK, Singh SP, Chatterjee S (2008b) Sensors for 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid based on nanomaterial modified electrodes. Sensors Actuators B Chem 134:816–821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Goyal RN, Gupta VK, Chatterjee S (2009) Fullerene–C60–modified edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode for the determination of dexamethasone in pharmaceutical formulations and human biological fluids. Biosens Bioelectron 24:1649–1654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Gu C, Karthikeyan KG (2005) Interaction of tetracycline with aluminum and iron hydrous oxides. Environ Sci Technol 39:2660–2667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Gupta VK, Ali I (2008) Removal of endosulfan and methoxychlor from water on carbon slurry. Environ Sci Technol 42(3):766–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Gupta VK, Imran A (2004) Removal of lead and chromium from wastewater using bagasse fly ash-a sugar industry waste. J Colloid Interface Sci 27:21–28Google Scholar
  81. Gupta VK, Rastogi A (2008a) Equilibrium and kinetic modeling of cadmium(II) biosorption by nonliving algal biomass Oedogonium sp. from aqueous phase. J Hazard Mater 153(1–2):759–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Gupta VK, Rastogi A (2008b) Biosorption of lead from aqueous solutions by green algae Spirogyra species: kinetics and equilibrium studies. J Hazard Mater 152:407–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Gupta VK, Rastogi A (2008c) Biosorption of lead from aqueous solutions by non-living algal biomass Oedogonium sp. and Nostoc sp.—a comparative sudy. Colloids Surfaces B Biointerfaces 64:170–178Google Scholar
  84. Gupta VK, Rastogi A (2009) Biosorption of hexavalent chromium by raw and acid-treated green alga Oedogonium hatei from aqueous solutions. J Hazard Mater 163(1):396–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Gupta VK, Sharma S (2003) Removal of zinc from aqueous solutions using bagasse fly ash — a low cost adsorbent. Ind Eng Chem Res 45(25):6619–6624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Gupta VK, Saleh TA(2011a) Chromium removal by combining the magnetic properties of iron oxide with adsorption properties of carbon nanotubes. Water Res 45:2207–2212Google Scholar
  87. Gupta VK, Saleh TA(2011b) Functionalization of tungsten oxide into MWCNT and its application as a novel catalyst for sun-light-induced degradation of rhodamine B. J Colloids Interface Sci 362:337–344Google Scholar
  88. Gupta VK, Jain AK, Singh LP, Khurana U (1997a) Porphyrins as carrier in PVC based membrane potentiometric sensors for Nickel (II). Anal Chim Acta 355:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Gupta VK, Srivastava SK, Mohan D, Sharma S (1997b) Design parameters for fixed bed reactors of activated carbon developed from fertilizer waste for the removal of some heavy metal ions. Waste Manag 17:517–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Gupta VK, Mohan D, Sharma S (1998) Removal of lead from wastewater using bagasse fly ash-a sugar industry waste material. Sep Sci Technol 33:1331–1343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Gupta VK, Mangla R, Khurana U, Kumar P (1999) Determination of uranyl ions using poly(vinyl chloride) based 4-tert-butylcalix[6]arene membrane sensor. Electroanalysis 11(8):573–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Gupta VK, Srivastava SK, Tyagi R (2000) Design parameters for the treatment of phenolic waste by carbon columns (obtained from fertilizer waste material). Water Res 34(5):1543–1550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Gupta VK, Gupta M, Sharma S (2001) Process development for the removal of lead and chromium from aqueous solutions using red mud—an aluminum industry waste. Water Res 35:1125–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Gupta VK, Mangla R, Agarwal S (2002) Pb (II) selective potentiometric sensor based on 4-tert-butylcalix[4]arene in PVC matrix. Electroanalysis 14:1127–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Gupta VK, Prasad R, Kumar A (2003) Preparation of ethambutol-copper (II) complex and fabrication of PVC based membrane potentiometric sensor for copper. Talanta 60:149–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Gupta VK, Singh P, Rahman N (2004) Adsorption behavior of Hg(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution on duolite C-433: a synthetic resin. J Colloid Interface Sci 275:398–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Gupta VK, Chandra S, Lang H (2005) A highly selective mercury electrode based on a diamine donor ligand. Talanta 66:575–580Google Scholar
  98. Gupta VK, Jain AK, Kumar P, Agarwal S, Maheshwari G (2006a) Chromium (III)-selective sensor based on tri-o-thymotide in PVC matrix. Sensors Actuators B 113(1):182–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Gupta VK, Mittal A, Gajbe V, Mittal J (2006b) Removal and recovery of the hazardous azo dye acid orange 7 through adsorption over waste materials: bottom ash and de-oiled soya. Ind Eng Chem Res 45(4):1446–1453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Gupta VK, Mittal A, Kurup L, Mittal J (2006c) Adsorption treatment and recovery of the hazardous dye, Brilliant Blue FCF, over bottom ash and de-oiled soya. J Colloid Interface Sci 293:16–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Gupta VK, Mittal A, Kurup L, Mittal J (2006d) Adsorption of a hazardous dye, erythrosine, over hen feathers. J Colloid Interface Sci, 304:52–57Google Scholar
  102. Gupta VK, Ali I, Saini V (2007a) Defluoridation of wastewaters using waste carbon slurry. Water Res 41(15):3307–3316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Gupta VK, Jain R, Varshney S (2007b) Removal of Reactofix golden yellow 3 RFN from aqueous solution using wheat husk — an agricultural waste. J Hazard Mater 142(1–2):443–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Gupta VK, Jain R, Varshney S (2007c) Electrochemical removal of the hazardous dye Reactofix Red 3 BFN from industrial effluents. J Colloid Interface Sci 312(2):292–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Gupta VK, Singh AK, Gupta B (2007d) Schiff bases as cadmium (II) selective ionophores in polymeric membrane electrodes. Anal Chim Acta 583:340–348Google Scholar
  106. Gupta VK, Al Khayat M, Singh AK, Manoj A, Pal K (2009a) Nano level detection of Cd (II) using poly(vinyl chloride) based membranes of Schiff bases. Anal Chim Acta 634(1):36–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Gupta VK, Goyal RN, Sharma RA (2009b) Comparative studies on neodymium (III)-selective membrane sensors. Anal Chim Acta 647:66–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Gupta VK, Goyal RN, Sharma RA (2009c) Novel alizarin sensor for determination of vanadium, zirconium and molybdenum. Int J Electrochem Sci 4:156–172Google Scholar
  109. Gupta VK, Mittal A, Malviya A, Mittal J (2009d) Adsorption of carmoisine A from wastewater using waste materials — bottom ash and deoiled soya. J Colloid Interface Sci 335(1):24–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Gupta VK, Jain R, Siddiqui MN, Saleh TA, Agarwal S, Malati S, Pathak D (2010a) Equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on the adsorption of the dye rhodamine-B onto mustard cake and activated carbon. J Chem Eng Data 55:5225–5229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Gupta VK, Rastogi A, Nayak A (2010b) Adsorption studies on the removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution using a low cost fertilizer industry waste material. J Colloid Interface Sci 342(1):135–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Gupta VK, Rastogi A, Nayak A (2010c) Biosorption of nickel onto treated alga (Oedogonium hatei): application of isotherm and kinetic models. J Colloid Interface Sci 342(2):533–539Google Scholar
  113. Gupta VK, Agarwal S, Saleh TA (2011a) Chromium removal by combining the magnetic properties of iron oxide with adsorption properties of carbon nanotubes. Water Res 45:2207–2212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Gupta VK, Agarwal S, Saleh TA (2011b) Synthesis and characterization of alumina-coated carbon nanotubes and their application for lead removal. J Hazard Mater 185:17–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Gupta VK, Gupta B, Rastogi A, Agarwal S, Nayak A (2011c) Pesticides removal from wastewater by activated carbon prepared from waste rubber tire. Water Res 45(13):4047–4055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Gupta VK, Gupta B, Rastogi A, Agarwal S, Nayak A (2011d) A comparative investigation on adsorption performances of mesoporous activated carbon prepared from waste rubber tire and activated carbon for a hazardous azo dye–Acid Blue 113. J Hazard Mater 186(1):891–901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Gupta VK, Ali I, Saleh TA, Nayak A, Agarwal S (2012a) Chemical treatment technologies for waste-water recycling – an overview. RSC Adv 2:6380–6388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Gupta VK, Ali I, Saleh TA, Siddiqui MN, Agarwal S (2012b) Chromium removal from water by activated carbon developed from waste rubber tires. Environ Sci Pollut Res. doi: 10.1007/s11356-012-0950-9
  119. Gupta VK, Jain R, Mittal A, Saleh TA, Nayak A, Agarwal S, Sikarwar S (2012c) Photo-catalytic degradation of toxic dye Amaranth on TiO2/UV in aqueous suspensions. Mater Sci Eng C 32:12–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Gurses A, Dogar C, Karaca S, Acikyildiz M, Bayrak R (2006) Production of granular activated carbon from waste Rosa canina sp. seeds and its adsorption characteristics for dye. J Hazard Mater B131:254–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Haghseresht F, Nouri S, Finnerty JJ, Lu GQ (2002) Effects of surface chemistry on aromatic compound adsorption from dilute aqueous solutions by activated carbon. J Phys Chem B106:10935–10943Google Scholar
  122. Hameed BH, Din ATM, Ahmad AL (2007) Adsorption of methylene blue onto bamboo-based activated carbon: kinetics and equilibrium studies. J Hazard Mater 141:819–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Han Y, Quan X, Chen S, Zhao H, Cui C, Zhao Y (2006) Electrochemically enhanced adsorption of aniline on activated carbon fibers. Sep Sci Technol 50:365–372Google Scholar
  124. Hirata H, Kawasaki N, Nakamura T, Matsumoto K, Kabayama M, Tamura T, Tanada S (2002) Adsorption of dyes onto carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds by microwave treatment. J Colloid Interface Sci 254:17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Hu Z, Srinivasan MP (2001) Mesoporous high-surface-area activated carbon. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 43:267–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Hu J, Chen C, Zhu X, Wang X (2009) Removal of chromium from aqueous solution by using oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes. J Hazard Mater 162:1542–1550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Hu J, Shao D, Chen C, Sheng G, Ren X, Wang X (2011a) Removal of 1-naphthylamine from aqueous solution by multiwall carbon nanotubes/iron oxides/cyclodextrin composite. J Hazard Mater 185:463–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Hu J, Zhao D, Wang X (2011b) Removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution using multiwalled carbon nanotubes/iron oxide magnetic composites. Water Sci Technol 63:917–923Google Scholar
  129. Idris AM, Ibrahim A, Abulkibash AM, Saleh TA, Ibrahim K (2011) Rapid inexpensive assaymethod for verapamil by spectrophotometric sequential injection analysis. Drug Test Anal 3:380–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Jain K, Gupta VK, Khurana U, Singh LP (1997) A new membrane sensor for UO2+, based on 2-hydroxyacetophenoneoxime–thioureatrioxane resin. Electroanalysis 9:857–860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Jain AK, Gupta VK, Bhatnagar A, Suhas (2003) A comparative study of adsorbents prepared from industrial wastes for removal of dyes. Sep Sci Technol 38(2):463–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Jain AK, Gupta VK, Jain S, Suhas (2004) Removal of chlorophenols using industrial wastes. Environ Sci Technol 38(4):1195–1200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Jain R, Gupta VK, Sikarwar S (2010) Adsorption and desorption studies on hazardous dye naphthol Yellow S. J Hazard Mater 182:749–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Jain R, Gupta VK, Saleh TA, Nayak A, Malathi S, Agarwal S (2011) Equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on the removal and recovery of Safranine-T from industrial effluents. Sep Sci Technol 46:839–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Ji LL, Chen W, Bi J, Zheng SR, Xu ZY, Zhu DQ, Alvarez PJ (2010) Adsorption of tetracycline on single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes as affected by aqueous solution chemistry. Environ Toxicol Chem 29:2713–2719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Jin B, Wilén BM, Lant P (2003) A comprehensive insight into floc characteristics and their impact on compressibility and settleability of activated sludge. Chem Eng J 95:221–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Jinno K, Tanabe K, Saito Y, Nagashima H (1997) Separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with various C60 fullerene bonded silica phases in microcolumn liquid chromatography. Analyst 122:787–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. John DZ (1990) Handbook of drinking water quality: standards and controls. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  139. Kannan N, Sundaram MM (2001) Kinetics and mechanism of removal of methylene blue by adsorption on various carbons e a comparative study. Dyes Pigments 51:25–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Khan AR, AL-Bahri TA, AL-Haddad A (1997) Adsorption of phenol based organicadsorption of phenol based orgnic pollutants on activated carbon from multi-component dilute aqueous solutions. Water Res 31:2102–2112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Kjellstrom T, Shiroishi K, Erwin PE (1977) Urinary beta./sub 2/- microglobulin excretion among people exposed to cadmium in the general environment. Environ Res 13:318–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Kondratyuk P, Yates JT Jr (2005) Desorption kinetic detection of different adsorption sites on opened carbon single walled nanotubes: the adsorption of n-nonane and CCl4. Chem Phys Lett 410:324–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Kuo CY (2009) Prevenient dye-degradation mechanisms using UV/TiO2/carbon nanotubes process. J Hazard Mater 163:239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Kuo CY, Wu CH, Wu JY (2008) Adsorption of direct dyes from aqueous solutions by carbon nanotubes: determination of equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics parameters. J Colloid Interface Sci 327:308–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Laws EA (2000) Aquaticpollution: an introductory text, 3rd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  146. Lei S, Miyamoto JI, Kanoh H, Nakahigashi Y, Kaneko K (2006) Enhancement of the methylene blue adsorption rate for ultramicroporous carbon fiber by addition of mesopores. Carbon 44:1884–1890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Li H, Zhou B, Lin Y, Gu L, Wang W, Fernando S, Kumar S, Allard LF, Sun YP (2004a) Selective interactions of porphyrins with semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes. J Am Chem Soc 126(2004):1014–1015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Li YH, Di ZC, Luan ZK, Ding J, Zuo H, Wu XQ, Xu CL, Wu DH (2004b) Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by carbon nanotubes: adsorption equilibrium and kinetics. J Environ Sci (China) 16:208–211Google Scholar
  149. Li C, Zhang Y, Wang X, Zhao J, Chen W (2011) Removal and recovery of lead (II) ions from contaminated licorice extracts using oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 11:9731–9736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Ling S, Tian H, Wang S, Rufford T, Zhu ZH, Buckley CE (2011) KOH catalysed preparation of activated carbon aerogels for dye adsorption. J Colloid Interface Sci 357:157–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Liu Z, Shen Z, Zhu T, Hou S, Ying L, Shi Z, Gu Z (2000) Organizing single-walled carbon nanotubes on gold using a wet chemical self-assembling technique. Langmuir 16:3569–3572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Long RQ, Yang RT (2001) Carbon nanotubes as superior sorbent for dioxin removal. J Am Chem Soc 123:2058–2059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Lu C, Chiu H (2006) Adsorption of zinc (II) from water with purified carbon nanotubes. Chem Eng Sci 61:1138–1145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Lu C, Chung YL, Chang KF (2005) Adsorption of trihalomethanes from water with carbon nanotubes. Water Res 39:1183–1189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Lunge S, Thakre D, Kamble S, Labhsetwar N, Rayalu S (2012) Alumina supported carbon composite material with exceptionally high defluoridation property from eggshell waste. J Hazard Mater 237–238:161–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Luo X, Zhang L (2009) High effective adsorption of organic dyes on magnetic cellulose beads entrapping activated carbon. J Hazard Mater 171:340–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Lv T, Pan L, Liu X, Sun Z (2012) Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by ZnO–reduced graphene oxide–carbon nanotube composites synthesized via microwave-assisted reaction. Catal Sci Technol 2:2297–2301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Machado FM, Bergmann CP, Fernandes TH, Lima EC, Royer B, Calvete T, Fagan SB (2011) Adsorption of Reactive Red M-2BE dye from water solutions by multi-walled carbon nanotubes and activated carbon. J Hazard Mater 192:1122–1131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Machado FM, Bergmann CP, Lima EC, Royer B, de Souza FE, Jauris IM, Calvete T, Fagan SB (2012) Adsorption of Reactive Blue 4 dye from water solutions by carbon nanotubes: experiment and theory. Phys Chem Chem Phys 21:11139–11153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Madden S, Hochella MF, Luxton TP (2006) Insights for size-dependent reactivity of hematite nanomineral surfaces through Cu2+ sorption. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 70:4095–4104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Madhava Rao M, Ramesh A, Purna Chandra Rao G, Seshaiah K (2006) Removal of copper and cadmium from the aqueous solutions by activated carbon derived from Ceiba pentandra hulls. J Hazard Mater 129:123–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Madrakian T, Afkhami A, Ahmadi M, Bagheri H (2011) Removal of some cationic dyes from aqueous solutions using magnetic-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes. J Hazard Mater 196:109–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Miguel GS, Lambert SD, Graham NJD (2001) The regeneration of field-spent granular activated carbon. Water Res 35:2740–2748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Mittal A, Kurup L, Gupta VK (2005) Use of waste materials — bottom ash and de-oiled soya, as potential adsorbents for the removal of amaranth from aqueous solutions. J Hazard Mater 117(2–3):171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Mittal A, Gupta VK, Malviya A, Mittal J (2008) Process development for the batch and bulk removal and recovery of a hazardous, water-soluble azo dye (Metanil Yellow) by adsorption over waste materials (bottom ash and de-oiled soya). J Hazard Mater 151(2–3):821–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Mittal A, Mittal J, Malviya A, Kaur D, Gupta VK (2010) Adsorption of hazardous dye crystal violet from wastewater by waste materials. J Colloid Interface Sci 343:463–473Google Scholar
  167. Moreno-Castilla C (2004) Adsorption of organic molecules from aqueous solutions on carbon materials. Carbon 42:83–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Mui ELK, Cheung WH, Valix M, McKay G (2010) Dye adsorption onto activated carbons from tyre rubber waste using surface coverage analysis. J Colloid Interface Sci 347:290–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Muranaka CT, Julcour C, Wilhelm AM, Delmas H, Nascimento CAO (2010) Regeneration of activated carbon by (photo)-Fenton oxidation. Ind Eng Chem Res 49:989–995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Namane A, Mekarzia A, Benrachedi K, Belhaneche-Bensemra N, Hellal A (2005) Determination of the adsorption capacity of activated carbon made from coffee grounds by chemical activation with ZnCl2 andH3PO4. J Hazard Mater 119:189–194Google Scholar
  171. Nguyen TD, Phan NH, Do MH, Ngo KT (2011) Magnetic Fe2MO4 (M: Fe, Mn) activated carbons: fabrication, characterization, and heterogeneous Fenton oxidation of methyl orange. J Hazard Mater 185:653–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Noh JS, Schwarz JA (1990) Estimation of the point of zero charge of simple oxides by mass titration. J Colloid Interface Sci 130:157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Ntim SA, Mitra S (2012) Adsorption of arsenic on multiwall carbon nanotube–zirconia nanohybrid for potential drinking water purification. J Colloid Interface Sci 375:154–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Okawa K, Suzuki K, Takeshita T, Nakano K (2007) Regeneration of granular activated carbon with adsorbed trichloroethylene using wet peroxide oxidation. Water Res 41:1045–1051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Oliveira LCA, Rios RVRA, Fabris JD, Garg VK, Sapag K, Lago RM (2002) Activated carbon/iron oxide magnetic composites for the adsorption of contaminants in water. Carbon 40:2177–2183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Pan B, Xing B (2008) Adsorption mechanisms of organic chemicals on carbon nanotubes. Environ Sci Technol 42:9005–9013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Pavoni B, Drusian D, Giacometti A, Zanette M (2006) Assessment of organic chlorinated compound removal from aqueous matrices by adsorption on activated carbon. Water Res 40:3571–3579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Pelekani C, Snoeyink VL (2001) A kinetic and equilibrium study of competitive adsorption between atrazine and Congo red dye on activated carbon: the importance of pore size distribution. Carbon 39:25–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Peng X, Li Y, Luan Z, Di Z, Wang H, Tian B, Jia Z (2003) Adsorption of 1,2-dichlorobenzene from water to carbon nanotubes. Chem Phys Lett 376:154–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Pereira MFR, Soares SF, Orfao JJM, Figueiredo JL (2003) Adsorption of dyes on activated carbons: influence of surface chemical groups. Carbon 41:811–821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Petit de Pefia Y, Gallego M, Valcarcel M (1995) Preconcentration of copper traces on C60–C70 fullerenes by formation of ion pairs and chelates. Anal Chem 67:2524–2529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Petit de Pefia Y, Gallego M, Valcarcel M (1997) Fullerene: a sensitive and selective sorbent for the continuous preconcentration and atomic absorption determination of cadmium. Anal Atom Spectrosc 12:453–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Pillay K, Cukrowska EM, Coville NJ (2009) Multi-walled carbon nanotubes as adsorbents for the removal of parts per billion levels of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution. J Hazard Mater 166:1067–1075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Prakash Kumar BG, Shivakamy K, Miranda LR, Velan M (2006) Preparation of steam activated carbon from rubberwood sawdust (Hevea brasiliensis) and its adsorption kinetics. J Hazard Mater 136:922–929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Pyrzynska K (2008) Carbon nanotubes as a new solid-phase extraction material for removal and enrichment of organic pollutants in water. Sep Purif Rev 37:372–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Qu S, Huang F, Yu S, Chen G, Kong J (2008) Magnetic removal of dyes from aqueous solution using multi-walled carbon nanotubes filled with Fe2O3 particles. J Hazard Mater 160:643–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Randall JM, Hautala E, Waiss Jr AC (1974) Removal and recycling of heavy metal ions from mining and industrial waste streams with agricultural by-products. In: Proceedings of the fourth mineral waste utilization symposium. ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  188. Rengaraj S, Moon SH, Sivabalan R, Arabindoo B, Murugesan V (2002) Removal of phenol from aqueous solution and resin manufacturing industry wastewater using an agricultural waste: rubber seed coat. J Hazard Mater 89:185–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Rengaraj S, Jei-Won Y, Younghun K, Won-Ho K (2007) Application of Mg-mesoporous alumina prepared by using magnesium stearate as a template for the removal of nickel: kinetics, isotherm and error analysis. Ind Eng Chem Res 46:2834–2842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Ress NB, Witt KL, Xu J, Haseman JK, Bucher JR (2002) Micronucleus induction in mice exposed to diazoaminobenzene or its metabolites, benzene and aniline: implications for diazoaminobenzene carcinogenicity. Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 521:201–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Sabio E, González E, González JF, González-García CM, Ramiro A, Gañan J (2004) Thermal regeneration of activated carbon saturated with p-nitrophenol. Carbon 42:2285–2293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Saito Y, Ohta H, Terasaki H (1995) Separation ofpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with a C60 bonded silica phase in microcolumn liquid chromatography High-Res. Chromatogr 18:569–572Google Scholar
  193. Saleh TA (2011) The influence of treatment temperature on the acidity of MWCNT oxidized by HNO3 or a mixture of HNO3/H2SO4. Appl Surf Sci 257:7746–7751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Saleh TA, Gupta VK (2011) Functionalization of tungsten oxide into MWCNT and its application for sunlight-induced degradation of rhodamine B. J Colloid Interface Sci 362:337–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Saleh TA, Gupta VK (2012a) Characterization of the bonding interaction between alumina and nanotube in MWCNT/alumina composite. Curr Nanosci 8:739–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Saleh TA, Gupta VK (2012b) Column with CNT/magnesium oxide composite for lead(II) removal from water. Environ Sci Pollut Res 19:1224–1228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Saleh TA, Gupta VK (2012c) Photo-catalyzed degradation of hazardous dye methyl orange by use of a composite catalyst consisting of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and titanium dioxide. J Colloid Interface Sci 371:101–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Saleh TA, Gupta VK (2012d) Synthesis and characterization of alumina nano-particles polyamide membrane with enhanced flux rejection performance. Sep Purif Technol 89:245–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Saleh TA, Gondal MA, Drmosh QA (2010) Preparation of a MWCNT/ZnO nanocomposite and its photocatalytic activity for the removal of cyanide from water using a laser. Nanotechnol 21:495705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Saleh TA, Agarwal S, Gupta VK (2011a) Synthesis of MWCNT/MnO2 and their application for simultaneous oxidation of arsenite and sorption of arsenate. Appl Catal B Environ 106:46–53Google Scholar
  201. Saleh TA, Gondal MA, Drmosh QA, AL-yamani A (2011b) Enhancement in photocatalytic activity for acetaldehyde removal by embedding ZnO nano particles on multiwall carbon nanotubes. Chem Eng J 166:407–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Schelm S, Smith GB (2003) Dilute LaB6 nanoparticles in polymer as optimized clear solar control glazing. Appl Phys Lett 82:4346–4348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Sekar M, Sakthi V, Rengaraj S (2004) Kinetics and equilibrium adsorption study of lead(II) onto activated carbon prepared from coconut shell. J Colloid Interface Sci 279:307–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Senthilkumaar S, Varadarajan PR, Porkodi K, Subbhuraam CV (2005) Adsorption of methylene blue onto jute fiber carbon: kinetics and equilibrium studies. J Colloid Interface Sci 284:78–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Sheng G, Li J, Shao D, Hu J, Chen C, Chen Y, Wang X (2010) Adsorption of copper(II) on multiwalled carbon nanotubes in the absence and presence of humic or fulvic acids. J Hazard Mater 178:333–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Shih YH, Li MS (2008) Adsorption of selected volatile organic vapors on multiwall carbon nanotubes. J Hazard Mater 154:21–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Shih JS, Chao YC, Sung MF (2001) Piezoelectric crystal membrane chemical sensors based on fullerene C60. Sensors Actuators B 76:347–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Singh KP, Mohan D, Sinha S, Tondon GS, Gosh D (2003) Color removal from wastewater using low-cost activated carbon derived from agricultural waste material. Ind Eng Chem Res 42:1965–1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Singh KP, Malik A, Sinha S, Ojha P (2008) Liquid-phase adsorption of phenols using activated carbons derived from agricultural waste material. J Hazard Mater 150:626–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Srivastava SK, Gupta VK, Dwivedi MK, Jain S (1995) Caesium PVC-Crown (dibenzo-24-crown-8) based membrane sensor. Anal Proc Incl Anal Commun 32:21–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Stalling DL, Guo CY, Saim S (1993) Surface-linked-C(60/70)polystyrene divinylbenzene beads as a new chromatographic material for enrichment of coplanar PCBS. Chromatogr Sci 31:265–278Google Scholar
  212. Stephen BI, Sulochana N (2002) Basic dye adsorption on a low cost carbonaceous sorbent —kinetic and equilibrium studies. Indian J Chem Technol 9:201–208Google Scholar
  213. Stephen BI, Sulochana N (2006) Use of jackfruit peel carbon (JPC) for adsorption of rhodamine-B, a basic dye from aqueous solution. Indian J Chem Technol 13:17–23Google Scholar
  214. Sun Y, Yang S, Sheng G, Guo Z, Wang X (2012) The removal of U(VI) from aqueous solution by oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes. J Environ Radioact 105:40–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Sze MFF, Lee VKC, McKay G (2008) Simplified fixed bed column model for adsorption of organic pollutants using tapered activated carbon columns. Desalination 218:323–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Tarun KN, Ashim KB, Sudip KD (2009) Adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions on activated alumina. J Colloid Interface Sci 333:14–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Tofighy MA, Mohammadi T (2011) Adsorption of divalent heavy metal ions from water using carbon nanotube sheets. J Hazard Mater 185:140–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Tsai WT, Hsu HC, Su TY, Lin KY, Lin CM, Dai TH (2007) The adsorption of cationic dye from aqueous solution onto acid-activated andesite. J Hazard Mater 147:1056–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Tseng RL (2007) Physical and chemical properties and adsorption type of activated carbon prepared from plum kernels by NaOH activation. J Hazard Mater 147:1020–1027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Valdes H, Sanchez-Polo M, Rivera-Utrilla J, Zaror CA (2002) Effect of ozone treatment on surface properties of activated carbon. Langmuir 18:2111–2116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Walker GM, Weatherley LR (2000) Textile wastewater treatment using granular activated carbon adsorption in fixed beds. Sep Sci Technol 35:1329–1341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Wang S, Zhu ZH (2007) Effects of acidic treatment of activated carbons on dye adsorption. Dyes Pigments 75:306–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Wang LG, Wang X, Ottova AL, Tien HT (2005a) Iodide sensitive sensor based on a supported bilayer lipid membrane containing a cluster form of carbon (fullerene C60). Electroanalysis 8:1020–1022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Wang S, Zhu ZH, Coomes A, Haghseresht F, Lu GQ (2005b) The physical and surface chemical characteristics of activated carbons and the adsorption of methylene blue from wastewater. J Colloid Interface Sci 284:440–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Wang X, Chen X, Yoon K, Fang D, Hsiao BS, Chu B (2005c) High flux filtration medium based on nanofibrous substrate with hydrophilic nanocomposite coating. Environ Sci Technol 39:7684–7691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Wu W, Jiang W, Xia W, Yang K, Xing B (2012) Influence of pH and surface oxygen-containing groups on multiwalled carbon nanotubes on the transformation and adsorption of 1-naphthol. J Colloid Interface Sci 374:226–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Xu D, Tan X, Chen C, Wang X (2008) Removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes. J Hazard Mater 154:407–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Xu J, Lv X, Li J, Li Y, Shen L, Zhou H, Xu X (2012) Simultaneous adsorption and dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol by Pd/Fe nanoparticles with multi-walled carbon nanotube support. J Hazard Mater 225–226:36–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Yang K, Xing B (2006) Desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from carbon nanomaterials in water. Environ Pollut 145:529–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Yang K, Zhu L, Xing B (2006) Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by carbon nanomaterials. Environ Sci Technol 40:1855–1861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Yang S, Li J, Shao D, Hu J, Wang X (2009) Adsorption of Ni(II) on oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes: effect of contact time, pH, foreign ions and PAA. J Hazard Mater 166:109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Youssef AM, Radwan NRE, Abdel-Gawad I, Singer GAA (2004) Textural properties of activated carbons from apricot stones. Colloids Surf 252:143–151Google Scholar
  233. Zhan JJ, Kolesnichenko I, Sunkara B, He JB, McPherson GL, Piringer G, John VT (2011) Multifunctional iron-carbon nanocomposites through an aerosol-based process for the in situ remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Environ Sci Technol 45:1949–1954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Zhang J, Lee JK, Wu V, Murray RW (2003) Photoluminescence and electronic interaction of anthracene derivatives adsorbed on sidewalls of single-walled carbon nanotubes. Nano Lett 3:403–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Zhang M, Zhao QL, Bai X, Ye ZF (2010) Adsorption of organic pollutants from coking wastewater by activated coke. Colloids Surf, A Physicochem Eng Asp 362:140–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Zhang L, Xu T, Liu X, Zhang Y, Jin H (2011) Adsorption behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the removal of olaquindox from aqueous solutions. J Hazard Mater 197:389–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Zhao K, Wang Z, Shi Z, Gu Z, Jinj Z (2011) Filling double-walled carbon nanotubes with WO3 and W nanowires via confined chemical reactions. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 11:2278–2282CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemistry DepartmentIndian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia
  2. 2.Chemistry DepartmentKing Fahd University of Petroleum and MineralsDhahranSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations