The performance and temporal variation of hybrid vertical-subsurface flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) in response to two-stage combinations of vertical upflow (VUF) and vertical downflow (VDF) were analyzed in this research. The results of high carbon (C) treatment and high nitrogen (N) treatment were similar. The Lythrum salicaria treatment showed higher removal efficiency than CWs planted with Acorus calamus. Under high C- and N-loading treatments, the optimum two-stage combination was VDF-VUF VFCWs planted with A. calamus. Furthermore, the highest nutrient removal efficiencies were achieved in late summer (July and August) and early autumn (September). The chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were significantly affected (P < 0.05) by season, system, and wetland plant.
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We thank colleagues and students from Fudan University for maintaining the experimental systems during the research period. This study was financially supported by the National Water Special Project of China (No. 2008ZX07101-001-04) and Postdoctoral Foundation of China (No. 332 2012 M511040).
Responsible editor: Hailong Wang
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Zhao, Y., Cheng, P., Pei, X. et al. Performance of hybrid vertical up- and downflow subsurface flow constructed wetlands in treating synthetic high-strength wastewater. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20, 4886–4894 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-1467-6
- Chemical oxygen demand removal
- Total nitrogen removal
- Total phosphorus removal
- Seasonal variation
- Vertical upflow
- Vertical downflow