A multi-approach monitoring of particulate matter, metals and PAHs in an urban street canyon
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For the first time until now, the results from a prediction model (Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System (ADMS)-Road) of pollutant dispersion in a street canyon were compared to the results obtained from biomonitors. In particular, the instrumental monitoring of particulate matter (PM10) and the biomonitoring of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 11 metals by Quercus ilex leaves and Hypnum cupressiforme moss bags, acting as long- and short-term accumulators, respectively, were carried out. For both PAHs and metals, similar bioaccumulation trends were observed, with higher concentrations in biomonitors exposed at the leeward canyon side, affected by primary air vortex. The major pollutant accumulation at the leeward side was also predicted by the ADMS-Road model, on the basis of the prevailing wind direction that determines different exposure of the street canyon sides to pollutants emitted by vehicular traffic. A clear vertical (3, 6 and 9 m) distribution gradient of pollutants was not observed, so that both the model and biomonitoring results suggested that local air turbulences in the street canyon could contribute to uniform pollutant distribution at different heights.
KeywordsMoss bags Holm oak leaves Pollutant dispersion model PAHs Metals Naples urban area
The authors wish to thank Assessorato Ambiente del Comune di Napoli and ANEA (Agenzia Napoletana Energia e Ambiente) for their support during monitoring campaign. The authors gratefully thank also Ivana Imperatore, the IPSIA Colosimo and the inhabitants living in Santa Teresa street who made the moss bag exposure possible. This work was financially supported by MIUR (PRIN 2007–2007AH8KT8).
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