Arsenic contamination in the freshwater fish ponds of Pearl River Delta: bioaccumulation and health risk assessment
- 2.5k Downloads
This study investigated the extent of arsenic (As) contamination in five common species of freshwater fish (northern snakehead [Channa argus], mandrarin fish [Siniperca chuatsi], largemouth bass [Lepomis macrochirous], bighead carp [Aristichthys nobilis] and grass carp [Ctenopharyngodon idellus]) and their associated fish pond sediments collected from 18 freshwater fish ponds around the Pearl River Delta (PRD). The total As concentrations detected in fish muscle and sediment in freshwater ponds around the PRD were 0.05–3.01 mg kg−1 wet weight (w. wt) and 8.41–22.76 mg kg−1 dry weight (d. wt), respectively. In addition, the As content was positively correlated (p < 0.05) to total organic carbon (TOC) contents in sediments. Biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) showed that omnivorous fish and zooplankton accumulated higher concentrations of heavy metals from the sediment than carnivorous fish. In addition, feeding habits of fish also influence As accumulation in different fish species. In this study, two typical food chains of the aquaculture ponds were selected for investigation: (1) omnivorous food chain (zooplankton, grass carp and bighead carp) and (2) predatory food chain (zooplankton, mud carp and mandarin fish). Significant linear relationships were obtained between log As and δ 15N. The slope of the regression (−0.066 and −0.078) of the log transformed As concentrations and δ 15N values, as biomagnifications power, indicated there was no magnification or diminution of As from lower trophic levels (zooplankton) to fish in the aquaculture ponds. Consumption of largemouth bass, northern snakehead and bighead carp might impose health risks of Hong Kong residents consuming these fish to the local population, due to the fact that its cancer risk (CR) value exceeded the upper limit of the acceptable risk levels (10−4) stipulated by the USEPA.
KeywordsArsenic Environmental assessment Bioaccumulation Biomagnification Aquaculture fish Pearl River Delta
Financial support from the Environmental and Conservation Fund (37/2009) and Special Equipment Grant (SEG, HKBU 09) of the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong are gratefully acknowledged. The authors thank Kunci Chen, Kaibin Li (Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou, PR China), and Jufang Chen (Institute of the Hydrobiology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, PR China) for field assistance.
- Fisk AT, Hobson KA, Norstrom RJ (2001) Influence of chemical and biological factors on trophic transfer of persistent organic pollutants in the northwater polynya marine food web. Environ Sci Technol 35:723–728Google Scholar
- Grund SC, Hanusch K, Wolf HU (2008): Arsenic and arsenic compounds. Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. Wiley-VCH, GermanyGoogle Scholar
- Kar S, Maity JP, Jean JS, Liu CC, Liu CW, Bundschuh J, Lu HY (2011) Health risks for human intake of aquacultural fish: arsenic bioaccumulation and contamination. J Environ Sci Heal A 46:1266–1273Google Scholar
- Lin HT, Chen SW, Shen CJ, Chu C (2008) Arsenic speciation in fish on the market. J Food Drug Anal 16:70–75Google Scholar
- Loska K, Wiechula D, Barska B, Cebula E, Chojnecka A (2003) Assessment of arsenic enrichment of cultivated soils in southern Poland. Pol J Environ Stud 12:187–192Google Scholar
- McGeer JC, Brix KV, Skeaff JM, DeForest DK, Brigham SI, Adams WJ, Green A (2003) Inverse relationship between bioconcentration factor and exposure concentration for metals: implications for hazard assessment of metals in the aquatic environment. Environ Toxicol Chem 22:1017–1037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Moreda-Pineiro J, Moreda-Pineiro A, Romaris-Hortas V, Moscoso-Perez C, Lopez-Mahia P, Muniategui-Lorenzo S, Bermejo-Barrera P, Prada-Rodriguez D (2011) In-vivo and in-vitro testing to assess the bioaccessibility and the bioavailability of arsenic, selenium and mercury species in food samples. Trac-Trend Anal Chem 30:324–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Müller G (1981) Die Schwermetallbelastung der Sedimente des Neckars und seiner Nebenflüsse Eine Bestandsaufnahme. Chem Ztg 105:157–164Google Scholar
- Petursdottir AH, Gunnlaudsdottir H, Jorundsdottir H, Raab A, Krupp EM, Feldmann J (2012) Determination of inorganic arsenic in seafood: emphasizing the need for certified reference materials. Pure Appl Chem 84:191–202Google Scholar
- Pikaray S, Banerjee S, Mukherji S (2005) Sorption of arsenic onto Vindhyan shales: role of pyrite and organic carbon. Curr Sci 88:1580–1585Google Scholar
- Rath P, Panda UC, Bhatta D, Sahu KC (2009) Use of sequential leaching, mineralogy, morphology and multivariate statistical technique for quantifying metal pollution in highly polluted aquatic sediments—a case study: Brahmani and Nandira Rivers, India. J Hazard Mater 163:632–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- USEPA (1989) Risk assessment guidance for superfund, Vol 1. EPA/540/1-89/002. Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, USEPA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- USEPA (1997): Determination of Carbon and Nitrogen in Sediments and Particulates of Estuarine/Coastal Waters Using Elemental Analysis. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/microbes/m440_0.pdf. Accessed 10 Aug 2011
- USEPA (2000): Guidance for Assessing Chemical Contaminant Data for Use in Fish Advisories. http://www.epa.gov/region6/6pd/qa/qadevtools/mod4references/supplemental/volume1.pdf. Accessed 11 Aug 2011
- USEPA (2009): User' s guide (December 2009): Mid-Atlantic risk assessment http://www.epa.gov/reg3hwmd/risk/human/rb-concentration_table/usersguide.htm. Accessed 16 Aug 2011.
- USEPA (2010): Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Arsenic, inorganic (CASRN 7440-38-2), http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris/index.cfm?fuseaction=iris.showSubstanceList. Accessed 17 Aug 2011.
- Wong CK, Chu KH, Chen QC, Xl M (1995) Envrionmental research in Pearl River and coastal areas. Guangdong Higher Education Press, Guangdong, pp 1–192Google Scholar
- Wong M, Cheung K, Yediler A (2004) The dike-pond systems in South China: past, present and future. In: Wong M (ed) Wetlands ecosystems in Asia: function and management. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 69–86Google Scholar