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Comparative analysis of selected biomarkers and pesticide sensitivity in juveniles of Solea solea and Solea senegalensis


The common sole, Solea solea (Linneus, 1758), and the Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup, 1858), are two important commercial species that coexist in the NW Mediterranean. In order to assess the species' ability to respond to chemical insults, a comparison of activities on enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism was carried out. Juveniles of both species were sampled in winter 2011 from the Ebro Delta region, and activities of selected enzymes such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CbE), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were determined in several tissues. Lipid peroxidation (LP) levels in plasma were measured as a sign of oxidative stress. In vitro exposures to selected pesticides were contrasted, analysing AChE and CbE activities in several tissue homogenates. Overall, enzymatic activities were higher in S. solea except for gill GST and CbE and kidney GST, while plasmatic LP levels were similar. In vitro contrasts revealed lower IC50 values for CbE activities in S. solea, suggesting a greater buffer capacity of this enzyme to potentially reduce pesticide toxicity over AChE.

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This work was financed by the Ministry of Science and Innovation of Spain (ref CTM2010-16611). The authors want to thank IRTA-Generalitat de Catalunya from Sant Carles de la Rápita (Spain) for generously letting us use their facilities during the fish sampling, Y. Picó (U. Valéncia) for the pesticide residue analysis in fish and the Water Catalan Agency (ACA; Generalitat de Catalunya) for the sediment analysis data. A. Torreblanca and R. Siscar are acknowledged for their valuable comments.

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Correspondence to M. Solé.

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Sànchez-Nogué, B., Varó, I. & Solé, M. Comparative analysis of selected biomarkers and pesticide sensitivity in juveniles of Solea solea and Solea senegalensis . Environ Sci Pollut Res 20, 3480–3488 (2013).

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  • In vitro
  • Xenobiotic metabolism
  • Pollutants
  • Benthic fish