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Multiplex biotoxin surface plasmon resonance method for marine biotoxins in algal and seawater samples

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A multiplex surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor method for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, okadaic acid (and analogues) and domoic acid was developed. This method was compared to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. Seawater samples (n = 256) from around Europe were collected by the consortia of an EU project MIcroarrays for the Detection of Toxic Algae (MIDTAL) and evaluated using each method. A simple sample preparation procedure was developed which involved lysing and releasing the toxins from the algal cells with glass beads followed by centrifugation and filtering the extract before testing for marine biotoxins by both multi-SPR and ELISA. Method detection limits based on IC20 values for PSP, okadaic acid and domoic acid toxins were 0.82, 0.36 and 1.66 ng/ml, respectively, for the prototype multiplex SPR biosensor. Evaluation by SPR for seawater samples has shown that 47, 59 and 61 % of total seawater samples tested positive (result greater than the IC20) for PSP, okadaic acid (and analogues) and domoic acid toxins, respectively. Toxic samples were received mainly from Spain and Ireland. This work has demonstrated the potential of multiplex analysis for marine biotoxins in algal and seawater samples with results available for 24 samples within a 7 h period for three groups of key marine biotoxins. Multiplex immunological methods could therefore be used as early warning monitoring tools for a variety of marine biotoxins in seawater samples.

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This research was funded by the European Commission as part of the FP7 European MIDTAL project, grant number 201724. We gratefully acknowledge all partners in the MIDTAL project and their contribution to this study. Linda Medlin and Jessica Kegel, (Marine Biological Association, Plymouth, UK), Marina Montresor and Lucia Barra, (Stazione Zoologica ‘A. Dohrn’ di Napoli, Naples, Italy), Edna Graneli, Johannes Hagstrom and Eva Perez, (Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden), Beatriz Reguera and Francisco Rodriguez, (Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Vigo, Spain), Robin Raine and Gary McCoy, (Martin Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland), Bente Edvardsen and Simon Dittami, (University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway), Jane Lewis and Joe Taylor, (University of Westminster, London, UK) and Yolanda Pazos (Technological Institute for the marine environment control of Galicia, Pontevedra, Spain) for collecting and providing seawater samples from around Europe .We also acknowledge those partners for providing algal cultures for cell lysis experiments, Francisco Rodriguez (Prorocentrum and Pseudo-nitizschia), Johannes Hagstrom and Eva Perez (Prorocentrum), Lucia Barra (Pseudo-nitizschia) and Amber Bratcher (University of Maine, USA) for providing Alexandrium cultures. We also acknowledge Jos Buijis (GE Healthcare Bio-Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden) for instrumentation support for the multiplex SPR biosensor.

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Correspondence to Sara E. McNamee.

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Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

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McNamee, S.E., Elliott, C.T., Delahaut, P. et al. Multiplex biotoxin surface plasmon resonance method for marine biotoxins in algal and seawater samples. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20, 6794–6807 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-012-1329-7

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  • Biosensor
  • Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)
  • Biotoxins
  • Multiplexing
  • Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins
  • Okadaic acid
  • Domoic acid
  • Harmful algal bloom (HAB)