Photodegradation of the antimicrobial triclocarban in aqueous systems under ultraviolet radiation
This work aimed to investigate the effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the degradation of the antimicrobial triclocarban (TCC). We investigated the effects of several operational parameters, including solution pH, initial TCC concentration, photocatalyst TiO2 loading, presence of natural organic matter, and most common anions in surface waters (e.g., bicarbonate, nitrate, and sulfate). The results showed that UV radiation was very effective for TCC photodegradation and that the photolysis followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The TCC photolysis rate was pH dependent and favored at high pH. A higher TCC photolysis rate was observed by direct photolysis than TiO2 photocatalysis. The presence of the inorganic ions bicarbonate, nitrate, and sulfate hindered TCC photolysis. Negative effects on TCC photolysis were also observed by the addition of humic acid due to competitive UV absorbance. The main degradation products of TCC were tentatively identified by gas chromatograph with mass spectrometer, and a possible degradation pathway of TCC was also proposed.
KeywordsPharmaceuticals and personal care products Triclocarban Ultraviolet radiation Photodegradation
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