Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 812–822 | Cite as

Organophosphorus flame retardants in house dust from the Philippines: occurrence and assessment of human exposure

  • Joon-Woo Kim
  • Tomohiko Isobe
  • Agus Sudaryanto
  • Govindan Malarvannan
  • Kwang-Hyeon Chang
  • Mamoru Muto
  • Maricar Prudente
  • Shinsuke Tanabe
Research Article


The use of organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) as flame retardants and plasticizers has increased due to the ban on common polybrominated diphenyl ether mixtures. However, only limited information on PFR contamination is available so far from Southeast Asia. In the present study, residual levels of PFRs in house dust and exposure through dust ingestion were investigated in the Philippines. House dust samples (n = 37) were collected from Malate (residential area) and Payatas (municipal dumping area) in the Philippines and analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Among the targeted seven PFRs, triphenyl phosphate (TPP) was the predominant compound. Median levels of ΣPFRs in Malate (530 ng/g) were two times higher (p < 0.05) than in Payatas (240 ng/g). The estimated daily intake of PFRs in the Philippines (of areas studied) via house dust ingestion was below the guideline values. House dust may be an important contributor in the overall exposure of humans to TPP even when considering dietary sources. To our knowledge, this is a first report on PFR contamination in house dust from developing country. PFRs were ubiquitously detected in the home environments in the Philippines. Although estimated exposure levels through dust ingestion were below the guideline, it was suggested that toddlers are at higher risk. Therefore, further investigations to understand the behavior of PFRs in house and other microenvironments and overall exposure pathways for the country’s populace to PFRs are necessary.


PFRs House dust Human exposure Philippines UHPLC-MS/MS 



Financial support was provided by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S: 20221003, B: 21310043) and for Young Scientist (B: 23710077) of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, Culture and Technology (MEXT) and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (ZRFc-1201) of the Japanese Ministry of the Environment. This research was also supported by MEXT program “Promotion of Environmental Improvement for Independence of Young Researchers” under the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joon-Woo Kim
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tomohiko Isobe
    • 1
    • 2
  • Agus Sudaryanto
    • 3
  • Govindan Malarvannan
    • 1
  • Kwang-Hyeon Chang
    • 4
  • Mamoru Muto
    • 1
  • Maricar Prudente
    • 5
  • Shinsuke Tanabe
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES)Ehime UniversityMatsuyamaJapan
  2. 2.Senior Research Fellow CenterEhime UniversityMatsuyamaJapan
  3. 3.Technology Center for Marine SurveyAgency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT)JakartaIndonesia
  4. 4.Department of Environmental Science and EngineeringKyungHee UniversityYongin-SiRepublic of Korea
  5. 5.Science Education DepartmentDe La Salle UniversityManilaPhilippines

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