Levels of black carbon and their relationship with particle number levels—observation at an urban roadside in Taipei City
- 301 Downloads
Information on the relationship between black carbon (BC) and particle number levels in urban areas is limited. Therefore, investigating the relationship between BC and particle number levels in different particle size ranges at an urban area is worthwhile. This study used an aethalometer and scanning mobility particle sizer to measure the levels of BC and particle number simultaneously at an urban roadside in Taipei City. Measurement results show that hourly BC levels are 0.62–8.80 μg m−3 (mean = 3.50 μg m−3) and hourly particle number levels are 4.21 × 103–4.64 × 104 particles cm−3 (mean = 2.00 × 104 particles cm−3) in Taipei urban area. The BC and particle number levels peak during morning (7:00–9:00) and evening (16:00–18:00) rush hours on weekdays. Low BC and particle number levels exist in the early morning hours. Time variations in BC levels are the same as those of particle number levels in this study, clearly indicating that BC and particles are likely released from the same emission source. Additionally, BC levels in the urban area are more strongly associated with ultrafine particle levels than with total particle number levels, particularly in the size range of 56–180 nm. According to measurement results, most BC in aerosols in urban areas can be in the ultrafine size range.
KeywordsBlack carbon Ultrafine particle Particle number Urban area
The authors would like to thank the National Science Council of the Republic of China, Taiwan, for financially supporting this research under Contract No. NSC100- 2221-E-131-001.
- Boogaard H, Kos GPA, Weijers EP, Janssen NAH, Fischer PH, Zee SC, Hartog JJ, Hoek G (2011) Contrast in air pollution components between major streets and background locations: particulate matter mass, black carbon, elemental composition, nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particle number. Atmos Environ 45:650–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hyvärinen AP, Kolmonen P, Kerminen VM, Virkkula A, Komppula M, Hatakka J, Burkhart J, Stohl A, Aalto P, Kulmala M, Lehtinen KEJ, Viisanen Y, Lihavainen H (2011) Aerosol black carbon at five background measurement sites over Finland, a gateway to the Arctic. Atmos Environ 45:4042–4050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Reche C, Querol X, Alastuey A, Viana M, Pey J, Moreno T, Rodríguez S, González Y, Fernández-Camacho R, Sánchez de la Campa AM, De la Rosa J, Dall’Osto M, Prévôt ASH, Hueglin C, Harrison RM, Quincey P (2011) New considerations for PM, black carbon and particle number concentration for air quality monitoring across different European cities. Atmos Chem Phys 11:6207–6227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rodríguez S, Dingenen RV, Putaud JP, Dell’Acqua A, Pey J, Querol X, Alastuey A, Chenery S, Ho KF, Harrison R, Tardivo R, Scarnato B, Gemelli V (2007) A study on the relationship between mass concentrations, chemistry and number size distribution of urban fine aerosols in Milan, Barcelona and London. Atmos Chem Phys 7:2217–2232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rodríguez S, Cuevas E, González Y, Ramos R, Romero PM, Pérez N, Querol X, Alastuey A (2008) Influence of sea breeze circulation and road traffic emissions on the relationship between particle number, black carbon, PM1, PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 concentrations in a coastal city. Atmos Environ 42:6523–6534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schulz M, Textor C, Kinne S, Balkanski Y, Bauer S, Berntsen T, Berglen T, Boucher O, Dentener F, Guibert S, Isaksen ISA, Iversen T, Koch D, Kirkevåg A, Liu X, Montanaro V, Myhre G, Penner JE, Pitari G, Reddy S, Seland Ø, Stier P, Takemura T (2006) Radiative forcing by aerosols as derived from the AeroCom present-day and pre-industrial simulations. Atmos Chem Phys 6:5225–5246CrossRefGoogle Scholar