Bulk atmospheric deposition of persistent toxic substances (PTS) along environmental gradients in Brazil
- 516 Downloads
Bulk atmospheric deposition measurements for selected persistent toxic substances (PTS) were performed along environment gradients (urban–suburban–rural–background sites) in Brazil. The aim with this work is to investigate the fate of PTS and their emissions in South America, particularly along environment transects. Bulk sampler systems (polyurethane foams, 1 × 1 m2) were fixed along environment gradients (urban–suburban–rural–background) over summer and winter periods (2005–2007) at sites of different climate zones of Brazil. Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture detector (Shimadzu 2010, 20i GC-ECD). Urban sites reported the highest deposition rates for all PTS, ranging from tens to thousands of pictograms per square meter per day. Basically, there were no obvious seasonal differences in deposition rate concentrations for PTS along the urban–suburban–rural–background gradient. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites were the OCs most frequently detected at relatively high deposition rate levels (>1,000 pg m−2 day−1). Other legacy and current-use pesticides such as hexachlorocyclohexanes, endosulfans, hexachlorcyclobenzine, dieldrin, aldrin, metoxichlor, and chlodanes were also detected at lower deposition rate levels (10–100 pg m−2 day−1). PCBs were detected at extremely high deposition rate levels (1,000–10,000 pg m−2 day−1) with highest contributions from the tetra-PCBs (PCB-52, PCB-44, PCB-66, PCB-81, and PCB-77) and penta-PCB congeners (PCB-101, PCB-105, PCB-114, PCB-118, and PCB-126). The greatest deposition rate concentrations for total PCBs were mainly detected at urban sites in connection with high population densities. The observed high deposition rate concentrations for PCBs and DDTs at urban sites are probably associated with old PTS stocks emissions. For PCBs in particular, the high levels are strongly associated with local population densities, highlighting the effect of local/regional urban sources on these target PTS. These results are important to show that even though the use of PTS is regulated, the deposition of selected PTS is still impacted by local and regional emissions in Brazil and may be related to the historical and continued emissions from old PTS stocks.
KeywordsPersistent toxic substances (PTS) Atmospheric deposition Organochlorine pesticides PCBs Environment gradients Brazil
This work was partially funded by CNPq–Prosul (014/2006, Brazil) and CAPES–“Ciências do Mar” (no. 09/2009). The authors would like to acknowledge the “Instituto Chico Mendes de Biodiversidade” (ICMBio) for technical support and for granting permission to deploy equipments at the two national parks monitored in this study. Dr. Torres is a researcher of CNPq-level 2, “Jovem Cientista do Nosso Estado” (FAPERJ), and Advance Fellow at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine, and is funded by Grant 1D43TW00640.
- Azeredo A, Torres JPM, Fonseca MF, Lailson-Britto J, Bastos WR, Azevedo-Silva CE, Cavalcanti G, Meire RO, Sarcinelli PN, Cláudio L, Markowitz S, Malm O (2008) DDT and its metabolites in breast milk from the Madeira river basin in the Amazon, Brazil. Chemosphere 73:S246–S251. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.04.090 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Brasil (2009) Casa Civil, Lei no 11936 of 14 May in 2009. At: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2007-2010/2009/Lei/L11936.htm. Accessed March 2010.
- Dorneles PR, Lailson-Brito J, Azevedo AF, Meyer J, Vidal LG, Fragoso AB, Torres JPM, Malm O, Blust R, Das K (2008) High accumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in marine Tucuxi dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from the Brazilian coast environ. Part Sci Technol 42(14):5368–5373. doi: 10.1021/es800702k CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- IBGE (2010) Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. At: http://ibge.gov.br/cidadesat.htm. Accessed December 2010.
- Karlsson H, Muir DCG, Teixiera C, Burniston DA, Strachan WMJ, Hecky RE, Mwita J, Bootsman HA, Grift NP, Kidd KA, Rosenberg B (2000) Persistent chlorinated pesticides in air, water, and precipitation from the Lake Malawi area, southern Africa. Environ Sci Technol 34:4490–4495. doi: 10.1021/es001053j CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lailson-Brito J, Dorneles PR, Azevedo-Silva CE, Azevedo AF, Vidal LG, Zanelatto RC, Lozinski CPC, Azeredo A, Fragoso ABL, Cunha HA, Torres JPM, Malm O (2010) High organochlorine accumulation in blubber of Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, from Brazilian coast and its use to establish geographical differences among populations. Environ Pollut 5(158):1800–1808. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2009.11.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Li YF (1999) Global technical hexachlorocylohexane usage and its contamination consequences in environment: from 1948 to1997. Sci Total Environ 232(3). doi: 10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00114-X
- Mackay D, Ying W, Ma K, Lee SC (2006) Handbook of physical-chemical properties and environmental fate for organic chemical (second edition). Taylor & Francis Group, FloridaGoogle Scholar
- Meire RO, Lee SC, Yao Y, Torres JPM, Harner T (2010) Seasonal and altitudinal variations of legacy and current-use pesticides in the Brazilian tropical and subtropical mountains. Organohalogen Compounds 72:164–167, ISSN 1026-4892Google Scholar
- Pereira MS, Waller U, Reifenhäuser W, Torres JPM, Malm O, Körner W (2007a) Persistent organic pollutants in atmospheric deposition and biomonitoring with Tillandsia usneoides (L.) in an industrialized area in Rio de Janeiro state, south east Brazil—part I: PCDD and PCDF. Chemosphere 67(9):1728–1735. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.05.145 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pereira MS, Heitmann D, Reifenhäuser W, Meire RO, Santos LS, Torres JPM, Malm O, Körner W (2007b) Persistent organic pollutants in atmospheric deposition and biomonitoring with Tillandsia usneoides (L.) in an industrialized area in Rio de Janeiro state, southeast Brazil—part II: PCB and PAH. Chemosphere 67(9):1736–1745. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.05.141 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Saldanha GC, Torres JPM, Bastos WR, Claudio L, Henkelmann B, Schramm KW (2009) Organic pollutants in human hair from Brazilian Amazon. Organohalogen Compd 71:771–774, ISSN 1026-4892Google Scholar
- Souza AS, Torres JPM, Meire RO, Neves RC, Couri MS, Serejo CS (2008) Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sedimento and crabs (Chasmagnathus granulate, Dana, 1851) from mangroves of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Chemosphere 73:S186–S192. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.04.093 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Torres JPM, Lailson-Brito J, Saldanha GC, Dorneles P, Azevedo-Silva CE, Malm O, Guimarães JR, Azeredo A, Bastos WR, Silva VMF, Martin AR, Cláudio L, Markowitz S (2009) Persistent toxic substances in the Brazilian Amazon: contamination of man and the environment. J Braz Chem Soc 20(6):1175–1179, ISSN 0103-5053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- UNEP (2001) United Nations Environmental Programme. Stockholm protocol on persistent organic pollutants. UNEP-Chemicals, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- UNEP (2002) United Nations Environmental Programme, regionally based assessment of persistent toxic substances. Region XI Eastern and Western South America. UNEP-Chemicals, Viña del Mar, Chile, 91 pagesGoogle Scholar
- UNEP–United Nations Environmental Programme (2009) Stockholm protocol on persistent organic pollutants. UNEP-Chemicals Geneva, Switzerland. At: www.chm.pops.int. Accessed September 2010.
- WHO (World Health Organization) (1979) DDT and its derivatives. Environmental Health Criteria Series 9. WHO, Geneva.Google Scholar
- Yao Y, Tuduri L, Harner T, Blanchard P, Waite D, Poissant L, Murphy C, Belzer W, Aulagnier F, Li Y, Sverko E (2006) Spatial and temporal distribution of pesticides air concentrations in Canadian agricultural regions. Atmos Environ 40:4339–4351. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.03.039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar