Advertisement

Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Response surface optimization of a dynamic dye adsorption process: a case study of crystal violet adsorption onto NaOH-modified rice husk

  • 905 Accesses

  • 42 Citations

Abstract

The adsorption of crystal violet from aqueous solution by NaOH-modified rice husk was investigated in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed column. A two-level three factor (23) full factorial central composite design with the help of Design Expert Version 7.1.6 (Stat Ease, USA) was used for optimisation of the dynamic dye adsorption process and evaluation of interaction effects of different operating parameters: initial dye concentration (100–200 mg L−1), flow rate (10–30 mL min−1) and bed height (5–25 cm). A correlation coefficient (R 2) value of 0.999, model F value of 1,936.59 and its low p value (<0.0001) along with lower value of coefficient of variation (1.38 %) indicated the fitness of the response surface quadratic model developed during the present study. Numerical optimisation applying desirability function was used to identify the optimum conditions for a targeted breakthrough time of 12 h. The optimum conditions were found to be initial solution pH = 8.00, initial dye concentration = 100 mg L−1, flow rate = 22.88 mL min−1 and bed height = 18.75 cm. A confirmatory experiment was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the optimised procedure. Under the optimised conditions, breakthrough appeared after 12.2 h and the column efficiency was determined as 99 %. The Thomas model showed excellent fit to the dynamic dye adsorption data obtained from the confirmatory experiment. Thereby, it was concluded that the current investigation gives valuable insights for designing and establishing a continuous wastewater treatment plant.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. Aksu Z (2005) Application of biosorption for the removal of organic pollutants: a review. Process Biochem 40:997–1026

  2. Aleboyeh A, Daneshvar N, Kasiri MB (2008) Optimization of C.I. Acid Red 14 azo dye removal by electrocoagulation batch process with response surface methodology. Chem Eng Process 47:827–832

  3. Ali I, Gupta VK (2007) Advances in water treatment by adsorption technology. Nat Protoc 1:2661–2667

  4. Amini M, Younesi H, Bahramifar N, Lorestani AAZ, Ghorbani F, Daneshi A, Sharifzadeh M (2008) Application of response surface methodology for optimization of lead biosorption in an aqueous solution by Aspergillus niger. J Hazard Mater 54:694–702

  5. Benatti T, Tavares CRG, Guedes TA (2006) Optimization of Fenton’s oxidation of chemical laboratory wastewaters using the response surface methodology. J Environ Manage 80:66–74

  6. Chakraborty S, Chowdhury S, Saha PD (2011) Adsorption of crystal violet from aqueous solution onto NaOH-modified rice husk. Carbohydr Polym 86:1533–1541

  7. Chowdhury S, Saha PD (2012) Scale-up of a dye adsorption process using chemically modified rice husk: optimization using response surface methodology. Desalin Water Treat 37:331–336

  8. Crini G (2006) Non-conventional low-cost adsorbents for dye removal: a review. Bioresour Technol 97:1061–1085

  9. Garg UK, Kaur MP, Sud D, Garg VK (2009) Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution by adsorption on treated sugarcane bagasse using response surface methodological approach. Desalination 249:475–479

  10. Gupta VK, Ali I (2001) Removal of DDD and DDE from wastewater using bagasse fly ash, a sugar industry waste. Water Res 35:33–40

  11. Gupta VK, Ali I (2008) Removal of Endosulfan and Methoxychlor from water on carbon slurry. Environ Sci Technol 42:76–770

  12. Gupta VK, Rastogi A (2008a) Sorption and desorption studies of chromium(VI) from nonviable cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum biomass. J Hazard Mater 154:347–354

  13. Gupta VK, Rastogi A (2008b) Biosorption of lead(II) from aqueous solutions by non-living algal biomass Oedogonium sp. and Nostoc sp.—a comparative study. Colloids Surf B 64:170–178

  14. Gupta VK, Rastogi A (2008c) Equilibrium and kinetic modeling of cadmium(II) biosorption of nonliving algal biomass Oedogonium sp. from aqueous phase. J Hazard Mater 153:759–766

  15. Gupta VK, Rastogi A (2009) Biosorption of hexavalent chromium by raw and acid-treated green alga Oedogonium hatei from aqueous solutions. J Hazard Mater 163:396–402

  16. Gupta VK, Suhas (2009) Application of low-cost adsorbents for dye removal—a review. J Environ Manage 90:2313–2342

  17. Gupta VK, Rastogi A, Dwivedi MK, Mohan D (1997) Process development for the removal of zinc and cadmium from wastewater using slag—a blast furnace waste material. Sep Sci Technol 32:2883–2912

  18. Gupta VK, Mohan D, Sharma S (1998) Removal of lead from wastewater using bagasse fly ash—a sugar industry waste material. Sep Sci Technol 33:1331–1343

  19. Gupta VK, Mohan D, Sharma S, Park KT (1999) Removal of chromium(VI) from electroplating industry wastewater using bagasse fly ash—a sugar industry waste material. Environmentalist 19:129–136

  20. Gupta VK, Srivastava SK, Tyagi R (2000) Design parameters for the treatment of phenolic wastes by carbon columns (obtained from fertilizer waste material). Water Res 34:1543–1550

  21. Gupta VK, Singh P, Rahman N (2004a) Adsorption behavior of Hg(II), Pb(II), and Cd(II) from aqueous solution on Duolite C-433: a synthetic resin. J Colloid Interface Sci 275:398–402

  22. Gupta VK, Ali I, Saini VK (2004b) Removal of chlorophenols from wastewater using red mud: an aluminium industry waste. Environ Sci Technol 38:4012–4018

  23. Gupta VK, Ali I, Saini VK, Gerven TV, der Bruggen BV, Vandecasteele C (2005) Removal of dyes from wastewater using bottom ash. Ind Eng Chem Res 44:3655–3664

  24. Gupta VK, Mittal A, Kurup L, Mittal J (2006a) Adsorption of a hazardous dye, erythrosine, over hen feathers. J Colloid Interface Sci 304:52–57

  25. Gupta VK, Mittal A, Krishnan L, Mittal J (2006b) Adsorption treatment and recovery of the hazardous dye, Brilliant Blue FCF, over bottom ash and de-oiled soya. J Colloid Interface Sci 293:16–26

  26. Gupta VK, Mittal A, Jain T, Mathur M, Sikarwar S (2006c) Adsorption of Safranin-T from wastewater using waste materials—activated carbon and activated rice husks. J Colloid Interface Sci 303:80–86

  27. Gupta VK, Mittal A, Gajbe V, Mittal J (2006d) Removal and recovery of the hazardous azo dye Acid Orange 7 through adsorption over waste materials: bottom ash and de-oiled soya. Ind Eng Chem Res 45:1446–1453

  28. Gupta VK, Jain R, Varshney S (2007a) Electrochemical removal of the hazardous dye Reactofix Red 3 BFN from industrial effluents. J Colloid Interface Sci 312:292–296

  29. Gupta VK, Jain R, Mittal A, Mathur M, Sikarwar S (2007b) Photochemical degradation of the hazardous dye Safranin-T using TiO2 catalyst. J Colloid Interface Sci 309:464–469

  30. Gupta VK, Ali I, Saini VK (2007c) Defluoridation of wastewaters using waste carbon slurry. Water Res 41:3307–3316

  31. Gupta VK, Jain R, Varshney S (2007d) Removal of Reactofix golden yellow 3 RFN from aqueous solution using wheat husk—an agricultural waste. J Hazard Mater 142:443–448

  32. Gupta VK, Ali I, Saini VK (2007e) Adsorption studies on the removal of Vertigo Blue 49 and Orange DNA13 from aqueous solutions using carbon slurry developed from a waste material. J Colloid Interface Sci 315:87–93

  33. Gupta VK, Mittal A, Gajbe V, Mittal J (2008) Adsorption of basic fuchsin using waste materials—bottom ash and deoiled soya—as adsorbents. J Colloid Interface Sci 319:30–39

  34. Gupta VK, Rastogi A, Nayak A (2010) Adsorption studies on the removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution using a low cost fertilizer industry waste material. J Colloid Interface Sci 342:135–141

  35. Hamsaveni DR, Prapulla SG, Divakar S (2001) Response surface methodological approach for the synthesis of isobutyl butyrate. Process Biochem 36:1103–1109

  36. Han R, Ding D, Xu Y, Zou W, Wang Y, Li Y, Zou L (2008) Use of rice husk for the adsorption of Congo red from aqueous solution in column mode. Bioresour Technol 99:2938–2946

  37. Hasan SH, Srivastava P, Talat M (2009) Biosorption of Pb(II) from water using biomass of Aeromonas hydrophila: central composite design for optimization of process variables. J Hazard Mater 168:1155–1162

  38. Hasan SH, Ranjan D, Talat M (2010) Agro-industrial waste ‘wheat bran’ for the biosorptive remediation of selenium through continuous up-flow fixed-bed column. J Hazard Mater 181:1134–1142

  39. Jain M, Garg VK, Kadrivelu K (2011) Investigation of Cr(VI) adsorption onto chemically treated Helianthus annus: optimization using response surface methodology. Bioresour Technol 102:600–605

  40. Korbahti BK, Aktas N, Tanyolac A (2007) Optimzation of electrochemical treatment of industrial paint wastewater with response surface methodology. J Hazard Mater 148:83–90

  41. Kurniawan TA, Chan GYS, W-h L, Babel S (2006) Comparisons of low-cost adsorbents for treating wastewaters laden with heavy metals. Sci Total Environ 366:409–426

  42. Mittal A, Kurup L, Gupta VK (2005) Use of waste materials—bottom ash and de-oiled soya, as potential adsorbents for the removal of Amaranth from aqueous solutions. J Hazard Mater 117:171–178

  43. Mittal A, Gupta VK, Malviya A, Mittal J (2008) Process development for the batch and bulk removal and recovery of a hazardous, water-soluble azo dye (Metanil yellow) by adsorption over waste materials (bottom ash and de-oiled soya). J Hazard Mater 151:821–832

  44. Mittal A, Mittal J, Malviya A, Gupta VK (2010a) Removal and recovery of Chrysoidine Y from aqueous solutions by waste materials. J Colloid Interface Sci 344:497–507

  45. Mittal A, Mittal J, Malviya A, Kaur D, Gupta VK (2010b) Decoloration treatment of a hazardous triarylmethane dye, Light Green SF (yellowish) by waste material adsorbents. J Colloid Interface Sci 342:518–527

  46. Mittal A, Jain R, Mittal J, Varshney S, Sikarwar S (2010c) Removal of Yellow ME7GL from industrial effluent using electrochemical and adsorption techniques. Int J Environ Pollut 43:308–323

  47. Mittal A, Jain R, Mittal J, Shrivastava M (2010d) Adsorptive removal of hazardous dye Quinoline yellow from wastewater using coconut-husk as potential adsorbent. Fresen Environ Bull 19:1–9

  48. Mittal A, Thakur V, Gajbe V (2012a) Evaluation of adsorption characteristics of an anionic azo dye brilliant yellow onto hen feathers in aqueous solutions. Environ Sci Pollut Res. doi:10.1007/s11356-012-0756-9

  49. Mittal A, Thakur V, Gajbe V (2012b) Adsorptive removal of toxic azo dye Amido Black 10B by hen feather. Environ Sci Pollut Res. doi:10.1007/s11356-012-0843-y

  50. Saha PD, Chakraborty S, Chowdhury S (2012a) Batch and continuous (fixed-bed column) biosorption of crystal violet by Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) leaf powder. Colloids, Surf B 92:262–270

  51. Saha PD, Chowdhury S, Mondal M, Sinha M (2012b) Biosorption of Direct Red 28 (Congo red) from aqueous solutions by eggshells: batch and column studies. Sep Sci Technol 47:112–123

  52. Sakkas VA, Islam AM, Stalikas C, Albanis TA (2010) Photocatalytic degradation using design of experiments: a review and example of the Congo red degradation. J Hazard Mater 175:33–44

  53. Singh KP, Gupta S, Singh AK, Sinha S (2011) Optimizing adsorption of crystal violet dye from water by magnetic nanocomposite using response surface modelling approach. J Hazard Mater 186:1462–1473

  54. Srinivasan S, Viraraghavan T (2010) Decolorization of dye wastewaters by biosorbents: a review. J Environ Manage 91:1915–1929

  55. Taniyildizi ST (2011) Modeling of adsorption isotherms and kinetics of reactive dyes from aqueous solution by peanut hull. Chem Eng J 168:1234–1240

  56. Uddin MT, Rukanuzzaman M, Khan MKR, Islam MA (2009) Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution by jackfruit (Artocarpus heteropyllus) leaf powder: a fixed-bed column study. J Environ Manage 90:3443–3450

  57. Wang J-P, Chen Y-Z, Wang Y, Yuan S-J, Yu H-Q (2011) Optimization of the coagulation-flocculation process for pulp mill wastewater treatment using a combination of uniform design and response surface methodology. Water Res 45:5633–5640

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Papita Das Saha.

Additional information

Responsible editor: Vinod Kumar Gupta

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Chowdhury, S., Chakraborty, S. & Saha, P.D. Response surface optimization of a dynamic dye adsorption process: a case study of crystal violet adsorption onto NaOH-modified rice husk. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20, 1698–1705 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-012-0989-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Adsorption
  • NaOH-modified rice husk
  • Crystal violet
  • Fixed-bed column
  • Response surface methodology
  • Optimisation