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Response surface optimization of a dynamic dye adsorption process: a case study of crystal violet adsorption onto NaOH-modified rice husk

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The adsorption of crystal violet from aqueous solution by NaOH-modified rice husk was investigated in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed column. A two-level three factor (23) full factorial central composite design with the help of Design Expert Version 7.1.6 (Stat Ease, USA) was used for optimisation of the dynamic dye adsorption process and evaluation of interaction effects of different operating parameters: initial dye concentration (100–200 mg L−1), flow rate (10–30 mL min−1) and bed height (5–25 cm). A correlation coefficient (R 2) value of 0.999, model F value of 1,936.59 and its low p value (<0.0001) along with lower value of coefficient of variation (1.38 %) indicated the fitness of the response surface quadratic model developed during the present study. Numerical optimisation applying desirability function was used to identify the optimum conditions for a targeted breakthrough time of 12 h. The optimum conditions were found to be initial solution pH = 8.00, initial dye concentration = 100 mg L−1, flow rate = 22.88 mL min−1 and bed height = 18.75 cm. A confirmatory experiment was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the optimised procedure. Under the optimised conditions, breakthrough appeared after 12.2 h and the column efficiency was determined as 99 %. The Thomas model showed excellent fit to the dynamic dye adsorption data obtained from the confirmatory experiment. Thereby, it was concluded that the current investigation gives valuable insights for designing and establishing a continuous wastewater treatment plant.

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Correspondence to Papita Das Saha.

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Responsible editor: Vinod Kumar Gupta

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Chowdhury, S., Chakraborty, S. & Saha, P.D. Response surface optimization of a dynamic dye adsorption process: a case study of crystal violet adsorption onto NaOH-modified rice husk. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20, 1698–1705 (2013).

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  • Adsorption
  • NaOH-modified rice husk
  • Crystal violet
  • Fixed-bed column
  • Response surface methodology
  • Optimisation