Bioremediation of chromium by novel strains Enterobacter aerogenes T2 and Acinetobacter sp. PD 12 S2
This study had an objective to identify the most potent chromium-resistant bacteria isolated from tannery effluent and apply them for bioremediation of chromium in tannery effluents.
Two such strains (previously characterized and identified by us)—Enterobacter aerogenes (NCBI GenBank USA Accession no. GU265554) and Acinetobacter sp. PD 12 (NCBI GenBank USA Accession no. GU084179)—showed powerful chromium resistivity and bioremediation capabilities among many stains isolated from tannery waste. Parameters such as pH, concentration of hexavalent chromium or Cr (VI), and inoculum volume were varied to observe optimum bioconversion and bioaccumulation of Cr (VI) when the said strains were grown in M9 minimal salt media. E. aerogenes was used to remediate chromium from tannery effluents in a laboratory level experiment.
Observation by Scanning Electron Microscope and chromium peak in Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopic microanalysis revealed that E. aerogenes helped remediate a moderate amount of Cr (VI) (8–16 mg L−1) over a wide range of pH values at 35–37°C (within 26.05 h). High inoculum percentage of Acinetobacter sp. PD 12 also enabled bioremediation of 8–16 mg L−1 of Cr (VI) over a wide range of temperature (25–37°C), mainly at pH 7 (within 63.28 h). The experiment with real tannery effluent gave very encouraging results.
The strain E. aerogenes can be used in bioremediation of Cr (VI) since it could work in actual environmental conditions with extraordinarily high capacity.
KeywordsChromium-resistant bacteria Enterobacter aerogenes Acinetobacter sp. PD 12 Bioremediation, TEM, AFM
The author JP gratefully acknowledges fellowship provided by the University Grants Commission (UGC), India. The author PS acknowledges a research fund from the UGC and support from Sensor-Hub, CGCRI for characterization and analysis.
- Dhal B, Thatoi H, Das N, Pandey B (2010) Reduction of hexavalent chromium by Bacillus sp. isolated from chromite mine soils and characterization of reduced product. J Chem Technol Biot 85:1471–1479Google Scholar
- McCarty PL (1994) Groundwater treatment for chlorinated solvents. In: Matthews JE (ed) Handbook of bioremediation. Lewis Publishers, Ann Arbor, pp 87–116Google Scholar
- Norris RD (1994) In-situ bioremediation of soils and groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. In: Matthews JE (ed) Handbook of bioremediation. Lewis Publishers, Ann Arbor, pp 17–37Google Scholar
- Sambrook J, Russel DW (2001) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. CSHL Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (1989) American Public Health Association, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
- Sundar K, Vidya R, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N (2010) High chromium tolerant bacterial strains from Palar River Basin: impact of tannery. Res J Environ Earth Sci 2:112–117Google Scholar