Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 1709–1718 | Cite as

Bacterial assisted phytoremediation for enhanced degradation of highly sulfonated diazo reactive dye

  • Rahul V. Khandare
  • Niraj R. Rane
  • Tatoba R. Waghmode
  • Sanjay P. GovindwarEmail author
Research Article



Phytoremediation is the exploitation of plants and their rhizospheric microorganisms for pollutants treatment like textile dyes, which are toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic from the effluent. The purpose of this work was to explore a naturally found plant and bacterial synergism to achieve an enhanced degradation of Remazol Black B dye (RBB).


In vitro cultures of Zinnia angustifolia were obtained by seed culture method. Enzymatic analysis of the plant roots and Exiguobacterium aestuarii strain ZaK cells was performed before and after decolorization of RBB. Metabolites of RBB formed after its degradation were analyzed using UV–Vis spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phytotoxicity studies were performed.


The consortium ZE was found to be more efficient than individual plant and bacteria. Z. angustifolia roots showed significant induction in the activities of lignin peroxidase, laccase, DCIP reductase and tyrosinase during dye decolorization. E. aestuarii showed significant induction in the activities of veratryl alcohol oxidase, azo reductase and DCIP reductase. Analysis of metabolites revealed differential metabolism of RBB by plant, bacteria and consortium ZE. E. aestuarii and Z. angustifolia led to the formation of 3,6-diamino-4-hydroxynaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid, (ethylsulfonyl)benzene, and 3,4,6-trihydroxynaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid and propane-1-sulfonic acid, respectively, whereas consortium ZE produced 4-hydroxynaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid, naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid and 4-(methylsulfonyl)phenol. The phytotoxicity study revealed the nontoxic nature of the metabolites formed after dye degradation.


Consortium ZE was found to be more efficient and faster in the degradation of RBB when compared to degradation by Z. angustifoila and E. aestuarii individually.


Phytoremediation Zinnia angustifolia Kunth. Exiguobacterium aestuarii strain ZaK Consortium ZE Remazol Black B Decolorization 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rahul V. Khandare
    • 1
  • Niraj R. Rane
    • 2
  • Tatoba R. Waghmode
    • 2
  • Sanjay P. Govindwar
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyShivaji UniversityKolhapurIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiochemistryShivaji UniversityKolhapurIndia

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