Degradation and mineralization of sulcotrione and mesotrione in aqueous medium by the electro-Fenton process: a kinetic study
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The degradation and mineralization of two triketone (TRK) herbicides, including sulcotrione and mesotrione, by the electro-Fenton process (electro-Fenton using Pt anode (EF-Pt), electro-Fenton with BDD anode (EF-BDD) and anodic oxidation with BDD anode) were investigated in acidic aqueous medium.
The reactivity of both herbicides toward hydroxyl radicals was found to depend on the electron-withdrawing effect of the aromatic chlorine or nitro substituents. The degradation of sulcotrione and mesotrione obeyed apparent first-order reaction kinetics, and their absolute rate constants with hydroxyl radicals at pH 3.0 were determined by the competitive kinetics method.
Results and discussion
The hydroxylation absolute rate constant (k abs) values of both TRK herbicides ranged from 8.20 × 108 (sulcotrione) to 1.01 × 109 (mesotrione) L mol−1 s−1, whereas those of the TRK main cyclic or aromatic by-products, namely cyclohexane 1,3-dione , (2-chloro-4-methylsulphonyl) benzoic acid and 4-(methylsulphonyl)-2-nitrobenzoic acid, comprised between 5.90 × 108 and 3.29 × 109 L mol−1 s−1. The efficiency of mineralization of aqueous solutions of both TRK herbicides was evaluated in terms of total organic carbon removal. Mineralization yields of about 97–98% were reached in optimal conditions for a 6-h electro-Fenton treatment time.
The mineralization process steps involved the oxidative opening of the aromatic or cyclic TRK by-products, leading to the formation of short-chain carboxylic acids, and, then, of carbon dioxide and inorganic ions.
KeywordsTriketone herbicides Electro-Fenton Hydroxyl radical Degradation Mineralization
M. Minir Murati gratefully thanks the French Embassy in Skopje (R. Macedonia) for a doctoral grant. Dr. Ahmad Dirany acknowledges the financial support of the Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée University for an ATER position in the “Laboratoire Géomatériaux et Environnement” (LGE) during his post-doctoral research stay in Paris.
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