Occurrence of endocrine disrupters and selected pharmaceuticals in Aisonas River (Greece) and environmental risk assessment using hazard indexes
The presence of four phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs: nonylphenol [NP], NP monoethoxylate[NP1EO], bisphenol A [BPA], triclosan, [TCS]) and four nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs: ibuprofen[IBF], ketoprofen [KFN], naproxen [NPX], diclofenac [DCF]) in a Greek river receiving treated municipal wastewater was investigated in this study.
Samples were taken from four different points of the river and from the outlet of a sewage treatment plant (STP) during six sampling campaigns, and they were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry.
According to the results, EDCs were detected in almost all samples, whereas NSAIDs were detected mainly in wastewater and in the part of the river that receives wastewater from the STP. Among the target compounds, the highest mean concentrations in the river were detected for NP (1,345 ng L−1) and DCF (432 ng L−1). Calculation of daily loads of the target compounds showed that STP seems to be the major source of NSAIDs to the river, whereas other sources contribute significantly to the occurrence of EDCs. The environmental risk due to the presence of target compounds in river water was estimated, calculating risk quotients for different aquatic organisms (algae, daphnids, and fish). Results denoted the possible threat for the aquatic environment due to the presence of NP and TCS in the river.
KeywordsEmerging contaminants Surface waters Wastewater Risk assessment
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