Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 1364–1374 | Cite as

Urban transformation of a metropolis and its environmental impacts

A case study in Shanghai
  • Zhan Tian
  • Guiying Cao
  • Jun Shi
  • Ian McCallum
  • Linli Cui
  • Dongli Fan
  • Xinhu Li
Urbanization in China and its Environmental Impact

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to understand the sustainability of urban spatial transformation in the process of rapid urbanization, and calls for future research on the demographic and economic dimensions of climate change. Shanghai towards its transformation to a metropolis has experienced vast socioeconomic and ecological change and calls for future research on the impacts of demographic and economic dimensions on climate change. We look at the major questions (1) to explore economic and demographic growth, land use and land-cover changes in the context of rapid economic and city growth, and (2) to analyze how the demography and economic growth have been associated with the local air temperature and vegetation.

Method

We examine urban growth, land use and land-cover changes in the context of rapid economic development and urbanization. We assess the impact of urban expansion on local air temperature and vegetation. The analysis is based on time series data of land use, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and meteorological, demographic and economic data.

Results and discussion

The results indicate that urban growth has been driven by mass immigration; as a consequence of economic growth and urban expansion, a large amount of farmland has been converted to paved road and residential buildings. Furthermore, the difference between air temperature in urban and exurban areas has increased rapidly. The decrease of high mean annual NDVI has mainly occurred around the dense urban areas.

Keywords

Urbanization Rural to urban migration Urban land use change Vegetation index (NDVI) Shanghai 

References

  1. Alberti M (1999) Urban patterns and environmental performance: what do we know? J Plan Educ Res 19(2):151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alberti M, Marzluff J (2004) Ecological resilience in urban ecosystems: linking urban patterns to human and ecological function. Urban Ecol 7:241–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cao GY, Gong C, Pang HL, Zheng XY, Nilsson S (2011) Urban growth in china: past, prospects, and impact. Pop Environ. doi:10.1007/s11111-011-0140-6
  4. Chen S, Tong Q, Guo H (1998) Research on mechanism of remote sensing information. Science, Beijing, p 56, in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  5. Ehrlich PR, Ehrlich AH, Holdren J (1970) Population, resources environment. Freeman, San Francisco, p 259Google Scholar
  6. Gallo KP, McNab AL, Karl TR et al (1993) The use of NOAA AVHRR data for assessment of the urban heat island effect. J Appl Meteorol 32:899–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gallo KP, Owen TW (1999) Satellite-based adjustments for the urban heat island temperature bias. J Appl Meteorol 38:806–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Habib AS, Chen X, Gong J (2008) Analysis of Sudan vegetation dynamics using NOAA–AVHRR NDVI data from 1982 to 1993. Asian J Earth Sci 1(1):1–15Google Scholar
  9. Han J, Hayashi Y, Cao X, Imura H (2009) Application of an integrated system dynamics and cellular automata model for urban growth assessment: a case study of Shanghai, China. Landsc Urban Plann 9:1133–1141Google Scholar
  10. He C, Tian J, Shi P, Hu D (2011) Simulation of the spatial stress due to urban expansion on the wetlands in Beijing, China using a GIS-based assessment model. Landsc Urban Plann 101:269–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. He JF, Zhuang DF (2006) Analysis of the relationship between urban dynamic change pattern of the Yangtze River delta and the regional eco-environment. Geogr Res 25:388–396Google Scholar
  12. Holben BN (1986) Characteristics of maximum-value composite images for temporal AVHRR data. Int J Remote Sens 7:1435–1445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Levin SA (1998) Ecosystems and the biosphere as complex adaptive systems. Ecosystems 1:431–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Li X, Zhang L, Liang C (2010) A GIS-based buffer gradient analysis on spatiotemporal dynamics of urban expansion in Shanghai and its major satellite cities. Procedia Environ Sci 2:1139–1156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Liu Y, Wang Y (2011) Study on resource–environment response to the rapid urban expansion of China. Energy Procedia 5:2549–2553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Newman P (2006) The environmental impact of cities. Environ Urban 18:275–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nicolas D, Thuy LT, Laurent K, Violetta F (2006) Remote sensing of spring phenology in boreal regions: a free of snow-effect method using NOAA-AVHRR and SPOT-VGT data (1982–2004). Remote Sens Environ 101:52–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ouyang TP, Fu SQ, Zhu ZY et al (2008) A new assessment method for urbanization environmental impact: urban environment entropy model and its application. Environ Monit Assess 146:433–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ouyang TP, Zhu ZY, Kuang YQ et al (2007) Establishment of urban environmental entropy model and its application in assessment of urbanization environmental impact. Ecol Environ 16:1824–1828, in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  20. Potsiou C (2010) Rapid urbanization and mega cities: the need for spatial information management. XXIV FIG International Congress, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  21. Rogers A (1983) Regional population projections for IIASA nations. Working Paper, IIASA Laxenburg pp 83–41Google Scholar
  22. Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau (2008) Statistical yearbook of Shanghai 2007. China Statistics, Beijing, in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  23. Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau (2009) Statistical yearbook of Shanghai 2008. China Statistics, Beijing, in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  24. UN (2002) World urbanization prospects. The 2001 revision. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. UN FPA (2009) Report on expert group meeting: population dynamics and climate change, 24–25 June 2009, London, UK http://www.unfpa.org/webdav/site/global/users/schensul/public/CCPD/Balk%20Abstract.pdf
  26. Wei H (2010) Re-thinking on the China’s urban development strategy. Urban Stud 12:38–41, in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  27. Weng QH (2000) Linking socioeconomic drivers to urban growth to environmental effects: a modeling approach with GIS and remote sensing. In 4th International Conference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling (GIS/EM4): problems, prospects and research needs. Banff, Alberta, p 256Google Scholar
  28. Xiang W-N, Stuber Robyn MB, Meng X (2011) Meeting critical challenges and striving for urban sustainability in China. Landsc Urban Plann 100:418–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Xu JL, Ke XX, Zhou WD (2005) Climate variation and its influence in cities of the Changjiang Delta in recent 50 years. Atmos Sci Res Appl 28:8–16Google Scholar
  30. Yue WZ, Xu JH, Xu LH (2006) An analysis on eco-environmental effect of urban land use based on remote sensing images: a case study of urban thermal environment and NDVI. Acta Ecol Sin 26:1450–1460, in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  31. Zhao B, Nobukazu N, Chen JK et al (2003) The impact of urban planning on land use and land cover in Pudong of Shanghai, China. J Environ Sci Sin 15:205–214, in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  32. Zhao P (2011) Managing urban growth in a transforming China: evidence from Beijing. Land Use Pol 28:96–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zhou HJ, Anton VR, Wang JA (2009) Detecting the impact of the “grain for green” program on the mean annual vegetation cover in the Shaanxi province, China using SPOT-VGT NDVI data. Land Use Pol 26:954–960CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhan Tian
    • 1
  • Guiying Cao
    • 2
  • Jun Shi
    • 1
  • Ian McCallum
    • 2
  • Linli Cui
    • 3
  • Dongli Fan
    • 4
  • Xinhu Li
    • 5
  1. 1.Shanghai Climate Center, Shanghai Meteorological BureauShanghaiChina
  2. 2.International Institute for Apply System AnalysisLaxenburgAustria
  3. 3.Shanghai Center for Satellite Remote Sensing and Application, Shanghai Meteorological BureauShanghaiChina
  4. 4.Shanghai Institute of TechnologyShanghaiChina
  5. 5.Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of SciencesXiamenChina

Personalised recommendations