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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 1044–1065 | Cite as

Occurrence and toxicity of antimicrobial triclosan and by-products in the environment

  • Gilles Bedoux
  • Benoit Roig
  • Olivier Thomas
  • Virginie Dupont
  • Barbara Le Bot
Review Article

Abstract

Introduction and aims

A review was undertaken on the occurrence, toxicity, and degradation of triclosan (TCS; 5-chloro-2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) in the environment. TCS is a synthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial agent incorporated in a wide variety of household and personal care products such as hand soap, toothpaste, and deodorants but also in textile fibers used in a range of other consumer products (e.g., toys, undergarments and cutting boards among other things).

Occurrence

Because of its partial elimination in sewage treatment plants, most reports describe TCS as one of the most commonly encountered substances in solid and water environmental compartments. It has been detected in a microgram per liter or microgram per kilogram level in sewage treatment plants (influents, effluents, and sludges), natural waters (rivers, lakes, and estuarine waters), and sediments as well as in drinking water.

Toxicity

Moreover, due to its high hydrophobicity, TCS can accumulate in fatty tissues and has been found in fish and human samples (urine, breast milk, and serum). TCS is known to be biodegradable, photo-unstable, and reactive towards chlorine and ozone.

Discussion

As a consequence, it can be transformed into potentially more toxic and persistent compounds, such as chlorinated phenols and biphenyl ethers after chlorination, methyl triclosan after biological methylation, and chlorinated dibenzodioxins after photooxidation. The toxicity of TCS toward aquatic organisms like fish, crustaceans, and algae has been demonstrated with EC50 values near TCS environmental concentrations. It has even been shown to produce cytotoxic, genotoxic, and endocrine disruptor effects.

Conclusion

Furthermore, the excessive use of TCS is suspected to increase the risk of emergence of TCS-resistant bacteria and the selection of resistant strains.

Keywords

Triclosan Occurrence Toxicity Degradation Human health 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gilles Bedoux
    • 1
    • 3
  • Benoit Roig
    • 2
    • 4
  • Olivier Thomas
    • 2
    • 5
  • Virginie Dupont
    • 1
    • 6
  • Barbara Le Bot
    • 2
    • 5
  1. 1.Université Européenne de BretagneVannes CedexFrance
  2. 2.EHESP, Advanced School of Public HealthRennes cedexFrance
  3. 3.Laboratore de Biotechnologie et Chimie Marines (LBCM)Université Bretagne Sud (UBS)Vannes CedexFrance
  4. 4.Laboratoire d’Etude et de Recherche en Environnement et Santé (LERES)Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Santé Publique (EHESP)NîmesFrance
  5. 5.Laboratoire d’Etude et de Recherche en Environnement et Santé (LERES)Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Santé Publique (EHESP)Rennes cedexFrance
  6. 6.Laboratoire Ingénierie des Matériaux de Bretagne (LIMATB)Université Bretagne Sud (UBS)Vannes CedexFrance

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