Occurrence of perfluorinated organic acids in the North and Baltic Seas. Part 2: distribution in sediments
- 2.1k Downloads
The distribution of polar perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in sea water of the North and Baltic Seas has been described in part 1 of this study. In part 2, their occurrence in sediments is described in order to further investigate their distribution routes and possible sinks.
Sediments were extracted with methanol and PFCs with chain lengths of C4 to C10 analysed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.
Using the developed procedure, PFCs could be determined in sediments from all 15 stations which had been sampled. In most samples from the German Bight and western Baltic Sea, perfluorooctane sulphonate had the highest concentrations (0.02 to 2.4 μg/kg dry weight), followed by perfluorooctanoate at 0.06 to 1.6 μg/kg dry weight. Levels of the other PFCs were five to ten times lower. Concentrations of PFCs were similar to those of classical chlorinated hydrocarbons. The spatial distribution is strongly influenced by sediment parameters (e.g. total organic carbon (TOC)). By normalisation to TOC, regional differences were identified between the North and Baltic Sea samples. Sediment/water enrichment ratios estimated from field concentrations showed clear dependences on carbon chain length and chemical structure. Time trends of PFCs, investigated by analysing a sediment core (Skagerrak), differed clearly from those of “classical” pollutants.
Because of the strong influence of sediment parameters and the relatively low enrichment of PFCs in sediments, this matrix is less suited for investigating spatial distributions. Sediments should be used mainly for monitoring temporal trends, preferably using sediment cores.
KeywordsPerfluorinated compounds PFC PFOA PFOS North Sea Baltic Sea Sediment HPLC–MS/MS
This study was supported by the German Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt, Berlin) under project no. 202 22 213.
- 3M (1999) Fluorochemical use distribution and release overview. U.S. EPA public docket AR226-0550. 3M, St PaulGoogle Scholar
- Alzaga R, Salgado-Petinal C, Jover E, Bayona JM (2005) Development of a procedure for the determination of perfluorocarboxylic acids in sediments by pressurized fluid extraction, headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination. J Chromatogr A 1083:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Caliebe C (2007) Vorkommen und ökologische Relevanz polyfluorierter organischer Schadstoffe in der Meeresumwelt. Dissertation, University Hamburg. http://www.sub.uni-hamburg.de/opus/volltexte/2008/3570/pdf/DissertationChristinaCaliebe.pdf
- Nakata H, Kannan K, Nasu T, Cho H-S, Sinclair E, Takemura A (2006) Perfluorinated contaminants in sediments and aquatic organisms collected from shallow water and tidal flat areas of the Ariake Sea, Japan: environmental fate of perfluorooctane sulfonate in aquatic ecosystems. Environ Sci Technol 40:4916–4921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- OECD (2002) Hazard assessment of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and its salts. ENV/JM/RD(2002)17/FINALGoogle Scholar
- OSPAR (2006) OSPAR background document on perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS); (2005, updated 2006). http://www.ospar.org/documents/dbase/publications/P00269_BD%20on%20PFOS%20_2006%20version_.pdf. Accessed 4 Jul 2011
- Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (2009). http://chm.pops.int/Programmes/NewPOPs/The9newPOPs/tabid/672/language/en-US/Default.aspx. Accessed 4 Jul 2011
- Theobald N (2006) in Nordseezustandsbericht 2004. Berichte des Bundesamts für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, Hamburg und Rostock, Nr. 40/2006, 141–172. http://www.bsh.de/de/Produkte/Buecher/Berichte_/Bericht40/index.jsp. Accessed 4 Jul 2011
- Theobald N (2009) In: Loewe, P (Ed.), System Nordsee – Zustand 2005 im Kontext langzeitlicher Entwicklungen. Berichte des BSH, Nr. 44, Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, Hamburg und Rostock, 177–216. http://www.bsh.de/de/Produkte/Buecher/Berichte_/Bericht44/Bericht44.pdf. Accessed 4 Jul 2011
- Theobald N, Gerwinski W, Caliebe C, et al (2011) Occurrence of perfluorinated organic acids in the North and Baltic Seas. Part 1: distribution in sea water. Env Sc Poll Res. doi: 10.1007/s11356-011-0451-2