Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 169–176 | Cite as

Degradation of o-toluidine by fluidized-bed Fenton process: statistical and kinetic study

  • Jin Anotai
  • Pumis Thuptimdang
  • Chia-Chi Su
  • Ming-Chun Lu
Research Article


Background, aim, and scope

The optimal conditions of o-toluidine degradation by fluidized-bed Fenton process were determined using Box–Behnken designs (BBD). The BBD can be used to find the optimal conditions in multivariable systems. The optimal conditions obtained by the design were further applied in the kinetic analysis of o-toluidine oxidation in fluidized-bed Fenton process.

Materials and methods

The 1.35-L fluidized-bed reactor used in all experiments was a cylindrical vessel with an inlet, outlet, and recirculation pump. The o-toluidine was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results and discussion

Analytical results indicated that pH, Fe2+, and H2O2 were significant factors in o-toluidine and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, but loading carrier was not. The pH significantly affected not only o-toluidine degradation, but also total iron removal. The predicted conditions for optimal removal of 1 mM of o-toluidine using 100 g of carriers were pH 3 ± 0.5, 1 mM of Fe2+, and 17 mM of H2O2. Removal of o-toluidine and COD in the actual experiment was higher than predicted, whereas removal of total iron was slightly lower. The kinetic study showed that the initial rate and rate constant (k) of o-toluidine degradation in the fluidized-bed Fenton process correlated Fe2+ concentration. In the Fe2+/H2O2 stage, high concentration of H2O2 produced a scavenging effect.


The predicted removal efficiencies of o-toluidine and COD were 90.2% and 41.4%, respectively. Moreover, the removals of o-toluidine and COD in the actual experiment were 99.8% and 61.8%, respectively.


Advanced oxidation process Fluidized-bed Fenton o-Toluidine Box–Behnken design Kinetics Degradation 



The authors would like to thank the National Science Council of Taiwan (grant no. NSC 96-2628-E-041-001-MY3) and National Research University Project of Thailand’s Office of the Higher Education Commission for financially supporting this research.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jin Anotai
    • 1
    • 2
  • Pumis Thuptimdang
    • 2
    • 3
  • Chia-Chi Su
    • 4
  • Ming-Chun Lu
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringKing Mongkut’s University of Technology ThonburiBangkokThailand
  2. 2.National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management (NCE-EHWM)Chulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  3. 3.International Postgraduate Programs in Environmental Management, Graduate SchoolChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  4. 4.Department of Environmental Resources ManagementChia-Nan University of Pharmacy and SciencesTainanTaiwan

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