Real electroplating effluents contain multiple metals. An important point related with the feasibility of the bioremediation process is linked with the strategy to recover selectively metals. In this work, a multimetal solution, obtained after microwave acid digestion of the ashes resulted from the incineration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contaminated biomass, was used to recover selectively chromium, copper, nickel, and zinc.
The acid solution contained 3.8, 0.4, 2.8, and 0.2 g/L of chromium(III), copper, nickel, and zinc, respectively. The strategy developed consisted of recovering copper (97.6%), as a metal, by electrolyzing the solution at a controlled potential. Then, the simultaneous alkalinization of the solution (pH 14), addition of H2O2, and heating of the solution led to a complete oxidation of chromium and nickel recovery (87.9% as a precipitate of nickel hydroxide). After adjusting the pH of the remaining solution at pH 10, selective recovery of zinc (82.7% as zinc hydroxide) and chromium (95.4% as a solution of cromate) was achieved.
The approach, used in the present work, allowed a selective and efficient recovery of chromium, copper, nickel, and zinc from an acid solution using a combined electrochemical and chemical process. The strategy proposed can be used for the selective recovery of metals present in an acid digestion solution, which resulted from the incineration of ashes of biomass used in the treatment of heavy metals rich industrial effluents.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
APHA, AWWA, WPCF, (1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C
Aydin F, Yavuz O, Ziyadanogullari B, Ziyadanogullari R (1998) Recovery of copper, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, zinc and bismuth from electrolytic copper solution. Turk J Chem 22(2):149–154
Chang J (2011) Indicative chemical prices. International Chemical Information Service. http://www.icis.com/staticpages/a-e.htm. Accessed 07 February 2011
Chen C, Wang JL (2008) Removal of Pb2+, Ag+, Cs+ and Sr2+ from aqueous solution by brewery’s waste biomass. J Hazard Mat 151(1):65–70
Doulakas L, Novy K, Stucki CC (2000) Recovery of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn from synthetic mixture by selective electrodeposition in chloride solution. Electrochim Acta 46(2–3):349–356
Ferraz AI, Tavares T, Teixeira JA (2004) Cr(III) removal and recovery from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Chem Eng J 105:11–20
Gadd GM (2009) Biosorption: critical review of scientific rationale, environmental importance and significance for pollution treatment. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 84(1):13–28
Homer H (1994) Electroplating. In: Othmer K (ed) Encyclopedia of chemical technology, vol 9. Wiley, New York, pp 807–810
Huisman JL, Schouten G, Schultz C (2006) Biologically produced sulphide for purification of process streams, effluent treatment and recovery of metals in the metal and mining industry. Hydrometallurgy 83(1–4):106–113
Kuchar D, Fukuta T, Kubota M, Matsuda H (2010) Recovery of Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr from plating sludge by combined sulfidation and oxidation treatment. Int J Environ Sci Eng 2(2):62–66
London Metal Exchange (2011) Non-ferrous metal. http://www.lme.com/non-ferrous/index.asp. Accessed 07 February 2011
Machado MD, Santos MSF, Gouveia C, Soares HMVM, Soares EV (2008) Removal of heavy metals using a brewer’s yeast strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the flocculation as a separation process. Bioresour Technol 99(7):2107–2115
Machado MD, Janssens S, Soares HMVM, Soares EV (2009) Removal of heavy metals using a brewer’s yeast strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: advantages of using dead biomass. J Appl Microbiol 106(6):1792–1804
Machado MD, Soares EV, Soares HMVM (2010a) Removal of heavy metals using a brewer’s yeast strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: chemical speciation as a tool in the prediction and improving of treatment efficiency of real electroplating effluents. J Hazard Mat 180(1–3):347–353
Machado MD, Soares EV, Soares HMVM (2010b) Removal of heavy metals using a brewer’s yeast strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: application to the treatment of real electroplating effluents containing multielements. J Chem Technol Biot 85(10):1353–1360
Machado MD, Soares HMVM, Soares EV (2010c) Removal of chromium, copper and nickel from an electroplating effluent using a flocculent brewer’s yeast strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Water Air Soil Poll 212:199–204
Machado MD, Soares EV, Soares HMVM (2010d) Selective recovery of copper, nickel and zinc from ashes produced from Saccharomyces cerevisiae contaminated biomass used in the treatment of real electroplating effluents. J Hazard Mat 184:357–363
Martell AE, Smith RM (2004) NIST Standard Reference Database 46 Version 8.0, NIST Critically Selected Stability Constants of Metal Complexes Database, US Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Parvathi K, Nagendran R (2007) Biosorption of chromium from effluent generated in chrome-electroplating unit using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sep Sci Technol 42(3):625–638
Ruta L, Paraschivescu C, Matache M, Avramescu S, Farcasanu IC (2010) Removing heavy metals from synthetic effluents using “kamikaze” Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 85(3):763–771
Schecher WD, McAvoy DC (2003) MINEQL+: a chemical equilibrium modeling system, Version 4.5 for Windows, User’s Manual, Environmental Research Software, Hallowell, Maine
Soares EV, De Coninck G, Duarte F, Soares HMVM (2002) Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Cu2+ removal from solution: the advantages of using a flocculent strain. Biotechnol Lett 24:663–666
Stoll A, Duncan JR (1997) Implementation of a continuous-flow stirred bioreactor system in the bioremediation of heavy metals from industrial waste water. Environ Pollut 97(3):247–251
Strandberg GW, Shumate PE II, Parrot JR (1981) Microbial cells as biosorbents for heavy metals: accumulation of uranium by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Appl Environ Microbiol 41:237–245
Suzuki R, Li WH, Schwartz M, Nobe K (1995) Segmented porous-electrode flow reactors for the electrochemical treatment of commingled metal plating wastes. Plat Surf Finish 82(12):58–65
Tokuda H, Kuchar D, Mihara N, Kubota M, Marsuda H, Fukuta T (2008) Study on reaction kinetics and selective precipitation of Cu, Zn, Ni and Sn with H2S in single-metal and multi-metal systems. Chemosphere 73(9):1448–1452
Vogel AI (1987) Vogel’s qualitative inorganic analysis, 6th edn. Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow, England, p 112
Wilhelmi BS, Duncan JR (1996) Reusability of immobilised Saccharomyces cerevisiae with successive copper adsorption-desorption cycles. Biotechnol Lett 18(5):531–536
Zouboulis AI, Matis KA, Lazaridis NK (2001) Removal of metal ions from simulated wastewater by Saccharomyces yeast biomass: combining biosorption and flotation processes. Sep Sci Technol 36(3):349–365
The authors thank to the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) from Portuguese Government for the financial support of this work with FEDER founds, by the Project POCTI/CTA/47875/2002. Manuela D. Machado is also gratefully acknowledged for a grant scholarship financed under the same project and the grant from FCT (SFRH/BD/31755/2006).
The authors also wish to thank Doctor Rui Boaventura from the Faculty of Engineering of Porto University for the use of analytical facilities (microwave digestor). We would also like to thank to one of the reviewers for his/her valuable comments.
Responsible editor: Elena Maestri
About this article
Cite this article
Machado, M.D., Soares, E.V. & Soares, H.M.V.M. Selective recovery of chromium, copper, nickel, and zinc from an acid solution using an environmentally friendly process. Environ Sci Pollut Res 18, 1279–1285 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-011-0477-5
- Chemical precipitation
- Heavy metals
- Selective recovery
- Chemical speciation