Natural dissolved humic substances increase the lifespan and promote transgenerational resistance to salt stress in the cladoceran Moina macrocopa
- 456 Downloads
Evidence has accumulated that humic substances (HS) are not inert biogeochemicals. Rather, they cause stress symptoms and may modulate the life history of aquatic organisms. Nevertheless, it is still not clear how HS interact with additional stressors and if their effects are transgenerational. We tested the interactive effects of HS and salt to cladocerans, discussing their consequences for the persistence in fluctuating environments, such as coastal lagoons.
We used life-table experiments to test the effects of natural HS from a polyhumic coastal lagoon (0, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mg dissolved organic carbon (DOC) L−1) on the life-history of the cladoceran Moina macrocopa. We further tested the effects of HS (10 mg DOC L−1), within and across generations, on the resistance of M. macrocopa to salt stress (5.5 g L−1).
HS at 5–20 mg DOC L−1 extended the mean lifespan of M. macrocopa by ~30%. HS also increased body length at maturity by ~4% at 5–50 mg DOC L−1 and stimulated male offspring production at all tested concentrations. Exposure to HS (even maternal only) alleviated the salt-induced reduction of somatic growth. Co-exposure to HS increased body volume by 12–22% relative to salt-only treatments, while pre-exposure to HS increased body volume by 40–56% in treatments with salt presence, when compared to non-pre-exposed animals.
HS at environmentally realistic concentrations, by acting as mild chemical stressors, modify crucial life-history traits of M. macrocopa, favoring its persistence in fluctuating environments. Some of the effects of HS are even transgenerational.
KeywordsHumic substances Cross-tolerance Zooplankton Salinity Moina Maternal effects
- Bouchnak R, Steinberg CEW (2010) Modulation of longevity in Daphnia magna by food quality and simultaneous exposure to dissolved humic substances. Limnologica 40:86–91Google Scholar
- Connon R, Hooper HL, Sibly RM, Lim FL, Heckmann LH, Moore DJ, Watanabe H, Soetaert A, Cook K, Maund SJ, Hutchinson TH, Moggs J, De Coen W, Igichi T, Callaghan A (2008) Linking molecular and population stress responses in Daphnia magna exposed to cadmium. Environ Sci Technol 42:2181–2188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Euent S, Menzel R, Steinberg CEW (2008) Gender-specific lifespan modulation in Daphnia magna by a dissolved humic substances preparation. Ann Env Sci 2:7–10Google Scholar
- Farjalla VF, Faria BM, Esteves FA, Bozelli RL (2001) Bacterial abundance and biomass and relations with abiotic factors, in 14 costal lagoons of Rio de Janeiro State. In: Faria BM, Farjalla VF, Esteves FA (eds) Aquatic Microbial Ecology in Brazil. Series Oecologia Brasiliensis, vol vol. IX. PPGE-UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, pp 65-76Google Scholar
- Kefford BJ, Papas PJ, Crowther D, Nugegoda D (2002) Are salts toxicants? Australas J Ecotoxicol 8:63–68Google Scholar
- McKnight DM, Aiken GR (1998) Sources and age of aquatic humus. In: Hessen DO, Tranvik LJ (eds) Ecological Studies: aquatic humic substances, vol 133. Springer, Berlin, pp 9–39Google Scholar
- Nichols HW (1973) Growth media—freshwater. In: Stein J (ed) Handbook of phycological methods: culture methods and growth measurements. University Press, London, pp 7–24Google Scholar
- Petrusek A (2002) Moina (Crustacea: Anomopoda, Moinidae) in the Czech Republic: a review. Acta Soc Zool Bohem 66:213–220Google Scholar
- Pietsch K, Hofmann S, Henkel R, Saul N, Menzel R, Steinberg CEW (2010) The plant polyphenol caffeic acid affects life traits differently in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the cladoreran Moina macrocopa. Fresenius Env Bull 19:1238–1244Google Scholar
- Roff DA (2002) Life history evolution. Sinauer Associates, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
- Sarma SSS, Nandini S (2006) Review of recent ecotoxicological studies on cladocerans. J Environ Sci Health, Part B, Pestic Food Contam Agric Wastes 41(8):1417–1430Google Scholar
- Steinberg CEW (2003) Ecology of humic substances in freshwaters. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Steinberg CEW, Paul A, Pflugmacher S, Meinelt T, Klocking R, Wiegand C (2003) Pure humic substances have the potential to act as xenobiotic chemicals—a review. Fresenius Env Bull 12(5):391–401Google Scholar
- Steinberg CEW, Kamara S, Prokhotskaya VY, Manusadžianas L, Karasyova TA, Timofeyev MA, Jie Z, Paul A, Meinelt T, Farjalla VF, Matsuo AYO, Burnison BK, Menzel R (2006) Dissolved humic substances—ecological driving forces from the individual to the ecosystem level? Freshw Biol 51(7):1189–1210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Steinberg CEW, Saul N, Pietsch K, Meinelt T, Rienau S, Menzel R (2007) Dissolved humic substances facilitate fish life in extreme aquatic environments and have the potential to extend the lifespan of Caenorhabidts elegas. Ann Env Sci 1:81–90Google Scholar
- Steinberg CEW, Vićentić L, Rauch R, Bouchnak R, Suhett AL, Menzel R (2010b) Exposure to humic material modulates life history traits of the cladocerans Moina macrocopa and M. micrura. Chem EcolGoogle Scholar
- Suhett AL, MacCord F, Amado AM, Farjalla VF, Esteves FA Photodegradation of dissolved organic carbon in humic coastal lagoons (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). In: Martin-Neto L, Milori DMBP, Silva WTL (eds) Proceedings of the XII Meeting of the International Humic Substances Society, São Pedro, SP, Brasil, 2004. Humic substances and soil and water environment. Embrapa, pp 61–63Google Scholar
- Timofeyev MA, Shatilina ZM, Kolesnichenko AV, Bedulina DS, Kolesnichenko VV, Pflugmacher S, Steinberg CEW (2006a) Natural organic matter (NOM) induces oxidative stress in freshwater amphipods Gammarus lacustris Sars and Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton). Sci Total Environ 366(2–3):673–681Google Scholar
- Wang WH, Bray CM, Jones MN (1999) The fate of 14C-labelled humic substances in rice cells in culture. J Plant Physiol 154(2):203–211Google Scholar
- Wetzel RG (2001) Limnology: lake and river ecosystems, 3rd edn. Academic, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar