Dioxin- and POP-contaminated sites—contemporary and future relevance and challenges

Overview on background, aims and scope of the series
  • Roland WeberEmail author
  • Caroline Gaus
  • Mats Tysklind
  • Paul Johnston
  • Martin Forter
  • Henner Hollert
  • Emanuel Heinisch
  • Ivan Holoubek
  • Mariann Lloyd-Smith
  • Shigeki Masunaga
  • Paolo Moccarelli
  • David Santillo
  • Nobuyasu Seike
  • Robert Symons
  • Joao Paulo Machado Torres
  • Matti Verta
  • Gerd Varbelow
  • John Vijgen
  • Alan Watson
  • Pat Costner
  • Jan Woelz
  • Peter Wycisk
  • Markus Zennegg


Background, aim and scope

Once they have been generated, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can persist in soils and sediments and in waste repositories for periods extending from decades to centuries. In 1994, the US EPA concluded that contaminated sites and other reservoirs are likely to become the major source of contemporary pollution problems with these substances. With this in mind, this article is the first in a new series in ESPR under the title ‘Case Studies on Dioxin and POP Contaminated Sites—Contemporary and Future Relevance and Challenges’, which will address this important issue. The series will document various experiences from sites contaminated with PCDD/F and other POPs. This article provides an overview of the content of the articles comprising the series. In addition, it provides a review of the subject in its own right and identifies the key issues arising from dioxin/POP-contaminated sites. Additionally, it highlights the important conclusions that can be drawn from these examples. The key aim of this article and of the series as a whole is to provide a comprehensive overview of the types of PCDD/F contaminated sites that exist as a result of historical activities. It details the various processes whereby these sites became contaminated and attempts to evaluate their contemporary relevance as sources of PCDD/Fs and other POPs. It also details the various strategies used to assess these historical legacies of contamination and the concepts developed, or which are under development, to effect their remediation.

Main features

Special sessions on ‘Contaminated sites—Cases, remediation, risk and policy’ were held at the DIOXIN conferences in 2006 and 2007, and this theme will be continued at DIOXIN 2008 to be held in Birmingham. Selected cases from the approximately 70 contributions made to these sessions, together with some additional invited case studies are outlined together with the key issues they raise. By evaluating these cases and adding details of experiences published in the current literature, an overview will be given of the different features and challenges of dioxin and POP-contaminated sites.


This article provides a systematic categorisation of types of PCDD/F and POP-contaminated sites. These are categorised according to the chemical or manufacturing process, which generated the PCDD/Fs or POPs and also includes the use and disposal aspects of the product life cycle in question. The highest historical PCDD/F and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination burdens have arisen as a result of the production of chlorine and of chlorinated organic chemicals. In particular, the production of chlorinated pesticides, PCBs and the related contaminated waste streams are identified being responsible for historical releases of toxic equivalents (TEQs) at a scale of many tonnes. Along with such releases, major PCDD/F contaminated sites have been created through the application or improper disposal of contaminated pesticides, PCBs and other organochlorine chemicals, as well through the recycling of wastes and their attempted destruction. In some extreme examples, PCDD/F contaminated sites have also resulted from thermal processes such as waste incinerators, secondary metal industries or from the recycling or deposition of specific waste (e.g. electronic waste or car shredder wastes), which often contain chlorinated or brominated organic chemicals. The examples of PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB contamination of fish in European rivers or the impact of contaminated sites upon fishing grounds and upon other food resources demonstrate the relevance of these historical problems to current and future human generations. Many of the recent food contamination problems that have emerged in Europe and elsewhere demonstrate how PCDD/F and dioxin like PCBs from historical sources can directly contaminate human and animal feedstuffs and indeed highlight their considerable contemporary relevance in this respect. Accordingly, some key experiences and lessons learnt regarding the production, use, disposal and remediation of POPs from the contaminated sites are summarised.


An important criterion for evaluating the significance and risks of PCDD/Fs and other POPs at contaminated sites is their present or future potential for mobility. This, in turn, determines to a large degree their propensity for off-site transport and environmental accessibility. The detailed evaluation of contaminated site cases reveals different site-specific factors, which influence the varied pathways through which poor water-soluble POPs can be mobilised. Co-contaminants with greater water solubility are also typically present at such sites. Hence, pumping of groundwater (pump and treat) is often required in addition to attempting to physically secure a site. At an increasing number of contaminated sites, securing measures are failing after relatively short time spans compared to the time horizon, which applies to persistent organic pollutant contamination. Due to the immense costs and challenges associated with remediation of contaminated sites ‘monitored natural attenuation’ is increasingly gaining purchase as a conceptual remediation approach. However, these concepts may well prove limited in their practical application to contaminated sites containing persistent organic pollutants and other key pollutants like heavy metals.


It is inevitable, therefore, that dioxin/POP-contaminated sites will remain of contemporary and future relevance. They will continue to represent an environmental issue for future generations to address. The securing and/or remediation of dioxin/POP-contaminated sites is very costly, generally in the order of tens or hundreds of millions of dollars. Secured landfills and secured production sites need to be considered as constructions not made for ‘eternity’ but built for a finite time scale. Accordingly, they will need to be controlled, supervised and potentially repaired/renewed. Furthermore, the leachates and groundwater impacted by these sites will require ongoing monitoring and potential further remediation. These activities result in high maintenance costs, which are accrued for decades or centuries and should, therefore, be compared to the fully sustainable option of complete remediation. The contaminated site case studies highlight that, while extensive policies and established funds for remediation exist in most of the industrialised western countries, even these relatively well-regulated and wealthy countries face significant challenges in the implementation of a remediation strategy. This highlights the fact that ultimately only the prevention of contaminated sites represents a sustainable solution for the future and that the Polluter Pays Principle needs to be applied in a comprehensive way to current problems and those which may emerge in the future.

Recommendations and perspectives

With the continuing shift of industrial activities in developing and transition economies, which often have poor regulation (and weak self-regulation of industries), additional global challenges regarding POPs and other contaminated sites may be expected. In this respect, a comprehensive application of the “polluter pays principle” in these countries will also be a key to facilitate the clean-up of contaminated areas and the prevention of future contaminated sites. The threats and challenges of contaminated sites and the high costs of securing/remediating the problems highlight the need for a comprehensive approach based upon integrated pollution prevention and control. If applied to all polluting (and potentially polluting) industrial sectors around the globe, such an approach will prove to be both the cheapest and most sustainable way to underpin the development of industries in developing and transition economies.


Chlorine industry Chlor-alkali Contaminated sites HCB Organochlorine industry PCB PCDD PCDF Persistent organic chemicals Pesticides POPs remediation remediation cost Stockholm Convention Unintentionally produced POPs UPOPs 


  1. Allen R (2004) The dioxin war—truth and lies about a perfect poison. Pluto Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Antonov A, Gamera A, Dounyushkin V, Ligostaeva E (2007) The main regulations of the Ukrainian National implementation plan for the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants—problems and ways of their solution. 9th International HCH and Pesticides Forum, 20–22 September 2007, Chisinau, Republic of MoldovaGoogle Scholar
  3. Assmuth T, Jalonen P (2005) Risks and management of dioxin-like compounds in Baltic Sea fish—an integrated assessment. Nordic Council of Ministers, TemaNord 2005:568, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker J, Hites R (2000) Is combustion the major source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans to the environment? A mass balance investigation. Env Sci Technol 34:2879–2886Google Scholar
  5. Ballschmiter K, Bacher R (1996) Dioxine. Verlag Chemie (VCH), WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  6. Balzer W, Gaus H-M, Gaus C, Weber R, Schmitt-Biegel B, Urban U (2007) Remediation measures in a residential area highly contaminated with PCDD/PCDF, Arsenic and heavy metals as a result of industrial production in the early 19th century. Organohalogen Compounds 69:857–860Google Scholar
  7. Bao Z, Wang K, Kang J, Zhao L (1994) Analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in pyrolysis residue of HCH. Environ Chem 13:409–414 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  8. Binelli A, Ricciardi F, Provini F (2004) Present status of POP contamination in Lake Maggiore (Italy). Chemosphere 57:27–34Google Scholar
  9. Birch GF, Harrington C, Symons RK, Hunt JW (2007) The source and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in sediments of Port Jackson, Australia. Mar Pollut Bull 54:295–308Google Scholar
  10. Brack W (2003) Effect-directed analysis: a promising tool for the identification of organic toxicants in complex mixtures? Anal Bioanal Chem 377:397–407Google Scholar
  11. Brack W, Klamer HJC, López de Alda MJ, Barceló D (2007) Effect-directed analysis of key toxicants in European river basins. A review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 14(1):30–38Google Scholar
  12. Brack W, Schirmer K, Erdinger L, Hollert H (2005) Effect-directed analysis of mutagens and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase inducers in aquatic sediments. Environ Toxicol Chem 24:2445–2458Google Scholar
  13. Braga AMCB, Krauss T, Reis dos Santos CR, Mesquita de Souza P (2002) PCDD/F-contamination in a hexachlorocyclohexane waste site in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Chemosphere 46:1329–1333Google Scholar
  14. Braun W (1955) Chlorakne. Monographien zur Zeitschrift ,Berufsdermatosen’. Band 1, Habilitation, Universtät HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  15. Breivik K, Sweetman A, Pacynaa JM, Jones K (2002) Towards a global historical emission inventory for selected PCB congeners—a mass balance approach 1. Global production and consumption. Sci Tot Environ 290:181–198Google Scholar
  16. Bühler C, Hauswirth M (2007) Grosse Gefahr—IWB wollen kein Wasser aus Muttenzer Hard. In: Baslerstab, 19.12.2007Google Scholar
  17. Bunge M, Kahkonen MA, Ramisch W, Opel M, Vogler S, Walkow F, Salkinoia-Salonen M, Lechner U (2007) Biological activity in a heavily organohalogen-contaminated river sediment. Environ Sci Pollut Res 14:3–10Google Scholar
  18. Buser HR (1978) Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans: formation, occurrence and analysis of environmentally hazardous compounds. Ph.D Thesis. University Umea, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  19. Cake EW Jr, Elston R, Humphrey K, Isphording WC, Rensel JE (2005) Dioxin and heavy-metal contamination of shellfish and sediments in St. Louis Bay, Mississippi and adjacent marine waters. J Shellf Res 24(1):227–241Google Scholar
  20. Chan JKY, Xing GH, Xu Y, Liang Y, Chen LX, Wu SC, Wong CKC, Leung CKM, Wong MH (2007) Body loadings and health risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at an intensive electronic waste recycling site in China. Environ Sci Technol 41:7668–7674Google Scholar
  21. Chapman PM, Hollert H (2006) Should the sediment quality triad become a tetrad, a pentad, or possibly even a hexad? J Soils Sediments 6:4–8Google Scholar
  22. Community Reference Laboratory for Dioxins and PCBs in Feed and Food (2007a) Correlation between pentachlorophenol (PCP) and dioxins in contaminated guar gum from India.
  23. Community Reference Laboratory for Dioxins and PCBs in Feed and Food (2007b) Contamination of guar gum from India with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and dioxins.
  24. Cooney CM (1998) Researchers find large discrepancy between dioxin deposition and emissions. Environ Sci Technol 32:10AGoogle Scholar
  25. Covaci A, Ryan JJ, Schepens P (2002) Patterns of PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs in chicken and pork fat following a Belgian food contamination incident. Chemosphere 47:207–217Google Scholar
  26. Degler H-D, Uentzelmann D (eds) (1984) Supergift dioxin, Spiegel Buch. Rudolf Augstein GmbH Co. KG, Hamburg, Germany, p 68Google Scholar
  27. De Voogt P, Brinkman UAT (1989) Production, properties and usage. In: Kimbrough RD, Jensen AA (eds) Halogenated biphenyls, terphenyls, naphthalenes, dibenzodioxins and related products. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  28. DiGangi J, Petrlík J (2005) The egg report.
  29. Dohmeier H-J, Janson E (1983) Vom Töten von Fliegen und Menschen. Rowolth Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH, Reinbek, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  30. Eidgnössisches Departement des Innern (1997) Erläuterungen zur Verordnung über die Sanierung von belasteten Standorten (Altlasten-Verordnung; AltV), Bern 05.1997, pp 8–9Google Scholar
  31. Eisenberg JNS, Bennett DH, McKone TE (1998) Chemical dynamics of persistent organic pollutants: a sensitivity analysis relating soil concentration levels to atmospheric emissions. Environ Sci Technol 32:115–123Google Scholar
  32. European Commission DG Environment (1999a) Compilation of EU dioxin exposure and health. Data task 4—human exposure.
  33. European Commission DG Environment (1999b) Annex 2—contribution of PCBs to total TEQ exposure.
  34. European Commission (2006a) Thematic strategy for soil protection. Brussels, 22.9.2006, COM(2006)231 final.
  35. European Commission (2006b) Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffsGoogle Scholar
  36. European Environment Agency (2007) Progress in management of contaminated sites (CSI 015). Assessment published Aug 2007Google Scholar
  37. EU Water Framework Directive (2000) The EU water framework directive—integrated river basin management for Europe. Official Journal of the European Communities (OJ L 327) on 22 December 2000Google Scholar
  38. Evers U, Wittsiepe J Hens-Bischoff G, Balzer W, Alger B, Urban U (1997) Human biomonitoring—studies of arsenic, lead and PCDD/F in inhabitants of a contaminated residential area. Gesundheitswesen 59:41–50Google Scholar
  39. Fattore E, Benfenati E, Mariani G, Fanelli R (1997) Patterns and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in sediments from the Venice Lagoon, Italy. Environ Sci Technol 31:1777–1784Google Scholar
  40. Fiedler H (2001) Global and local disposition of PCB. In: PCBs—recent advances in the environmental toxicology and health effects. University Press of Kentucky, Kentucky, pp 11–15Google Scholar
  41. Fiedler H (2007) National PCDD/PCDF release inventories under the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. Chemosphere 67:96–108Google Scholar
  42. Fiedler H, Hutzinger O, Welsch-Pausch K, Schmiedinger A (2000) Evaluation of the occurrence of PCDD/PCDF and POPs in wastes and their potential to enter the foodchain. Study on behalf of the European Commission, DG Environment.
  43. Five Winds International (2001) Toxic and hazardous materials in electronics. Report for Environment Canada.
  44. FOEN Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (2008) PCB in Fischen: Erste Sitzung der Arbeitsgruppe in Bern.
  45. Forter M (2000) Farbenspiel—ein Jahrhundert Umweltnutzung durch die Basler chemische Industrie. Zurich, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  46. Forter M (2006) Dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in chemical landfills of the Basel chemical industry. Organohalog Compd 68:886–889Google Scholar
  47. Forter M (2007) Chemiemüll und Trinkwasser in Muttenz 1957–2007. Studie im Auftrag des Forums besorgter TrinkwasserkonsumentInnen (FbTK) und Greenpeace. Basel, Switzerland, 12.2.2007Google Scholar
  48. Forter M, Walther J-L (2004) Gutachten über das Sanierungsprojekt der Basler Chemischen Industrie (BCI)/IG DIB für die Chemiemülldeponie Bonfol (DIB).
  49. Frankki S, Persson Y, Shchukarev A, Tysklind M, Skyllberg U (2007) Partitioning of CP, PCPP, PCDE and PCDD/F between dissolved and particulate organic matter at three industrial sites with chlorophenol preservative contamination. Environ Pollut 148(1):182–190Google Scholar
  50. Friege H, Klos H (1990) Historical development of sediment contamination in an industrialized area—I PCDDs and PCDFs in river sediments. Organohalog Compd 1:521–525Google Scholar
  51. Fürst P (2001) Contribution of dioxin-like PCB to total toxic equivalents of dairy products. Organohalog Compds 51:279–282Google Scholar
  52. Gerbersdorf SU, Jancke T, Westrich B (2007) Sediment properties for assessing the erosion risk of contaminated riverine sites. J Soils Sediments 7:25–35Google Scholar
  53. Gordon RA (1996) Waging the war Against DNAPLs. Cited January 1996
  54. Götz R (1986) Chemismus der dioxinhaltigen Sickeröle der Deponie Georgswerder/Hamburg. Müll Abfall 1:2–8Google Scholar
  55. Götz R, Steiner B, Friesel P, Roth K, Walkow F, Maa V, Reincke H, Stachel B (1998) Dioxin (PCDD/F) in the river Elbe—investigation of their origin by multivariant statistical methods. Chemosphere 37:1987–2002Google Scholar
  56. Götz R, Bauer O-H, Friesel P, Herrmann T, Jantzen E, Kutzke M, Lauer R, Paepke O, Roch K, Rohweder U, Schwartz R, Sievers S, Stachel B (2007) Vertical profile of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs, other PCBs, PAHs, chlorobenzenes, DDX, HCHs, organotin compounds and chlorinated ethers in dated sediment/soil cores from flood-plains of the river Elbe, Germany. Chemosphere 67:592–603Google Scholar
  57. Goovaerts P, Trinh HT, Demond AH, Towey T, Chang S-C, Gwinn D, Hong B, Franzblau A, Garabrant D, Gillespie BW, Lepkowski J, Adriaens P (2008) Geostatistical modeling of the spatial distribution of soil dioxin in the vicinity of an incinerator. 2. Verification and calibration study. Environ Sci Technol 42(10):3655–3661Google Scholar
  58. Grochowalski A, Lassen C, Holtzer M, Sadowski M, Hudyma T (2007) Determination of PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and HCB emissions from the metallurgical sector in Poland. Environ Sci Pollut Res 14:326–332Google Scholar
  59. Guerzoni S, Rossini P, Sarretta A, Raccanelli S, Ferrari G, Molinaroli E (2007) POPs in the Lagoon of Venice: budgets and pathways. Chemosphere 67:1776–1785Google Scholar
  60. Gustavsson L, Hollert H, Jonsson S, van Bavel B, Engwall M (2007) Reed beds receiving industrial sludge containing nitroaromatic compounds—effects of outgoing water and bed material extracts in the umu-C genotoxicity assay, DR-CALUX assay and on early life stage development in Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Environ Sci Pollut Res 14:202–211Google Scholar
  61. Hagenmaier H, Brunner H, Haag R, Berchtold A (1986) PCDDs and PCDFs in sewage sludge, river and lake sediments form South West Germany. Chemosphere 15:1421–1428Google Scholar
  62. Hagenmaier H, She J, Lindig C (1992) Persistence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in contaminated soil at Maulach and Rastatt in southwest Germany. Chemosphere 25:1449–1456Google Scholar
  63. Harrad SJ, Jones KC (1992) A source inventory and budget for chlorinated dioxins and furans in the United Kingdom environment. Sci Total Environ 126:89–107Google Scholar
  64. Hauser R, Williams P, Altshul L, Korrick S, Peeples L, Patterson Jr DG, Turner WE, Lee MM, Revich B, Sergeyev O (2005) Predictors of serum dioxin levels among adolescent boys in Chapaevsk, Russia: a cross-sectional pilot study. Environ Health 4:8–21Google Scholar
  65. Heinisch E, Kettrup A, Bergheim W, Wenzel S (2004) Persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons, source-oriented monitoring in aquatic media. 1. Methods of data processing and evaluation. Fresenius Environ Bull 15(3):148–169Google Scholar
  66. Heinisch E, Kettrup A, Bergheim W, Martens D, Wenzel S (2006a) Persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons, source-oriented monitoring in aquatic media. 4. The chlorobenzenes. Fresenius Environ Bull 15(3):148–169Google Scholar
  67. Heinisch E, Kettrup A, Bergheim W, Martens D, Wenzel S (2006b) Persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons, source-oriented monitoring in aquatic media. 5. The Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Fresenius Environ Bull 15(11):1344–1362Google Scholar
  68. Heinisch E, Kettrup A, Bergheim W, Wenzel S (2007) Persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons, source-oriented monitoring in aquatic media. 6. Strikingly high contaminated sites. Fresenius Environ Bull 16(10):1248–1273Google Scholar
  69. Hilscherova K, Kannan K, Nakata H, Hanari N, Yamashita N, Bradley PW, McCabe JM, Taylor AM, Giesy JP (2003) Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran concentration profiles in sediments and flood-plain soils of the Tittabawassee River, Michigan. Environ Sci Technol 37:468–474Google Scholar
  70. Hofmann T, Wendelborn A (2007) Colloid facilitated transport of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) to the groundwater at Ma Da Area, Vietnam. Environ Sci Pollut Res 14:223–224Google Scholar
  71. Hollert H, Haag I, Dürr M, Wetterauer B, Holtey-Weber R, Kern U, Westrich B, Färber H, Erdinger L, Braunbeck T (2003) Investigations of the ecotoxicological hazard potential and risk of erosion of contaminated sediments in lock-regulated rivers. Umweltwiss Schadst Forsch 15:5–12Google Scholar
  72. Hollert H, Duerr M, Haag I, Woelz J, Hilscherova K, Blaha L, Gerbersdorf S (2007a) Influence of hydrodynamics on sediment ecotoxicity. In: Westrich B, Foerstner U (eds) Sediment hydraulics and pollutant mobility in rivers. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 401–416Google Scholar
  73. Hollert H, Heise S, Keiter S, Heininger P, Förstner U (2007b) Wasserrahmenrichtlinie—Fortschritt und Defizite [Water framework directive—progress and deficiencies]. Umweltwiss Schadst Forsch 19:58–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Holmes SJ, Jones KC, Miller CE (1994) PCDD/PCDF contamination of the environment at Bolsover UK. Organohalog Compd 24:373–377Google Scholar
  75. Holmes SJ, Green N, Lohmann R, Jones KC (1998) Concentrations of PCDD/PCDFs in soil around a point source. Organohalog Compd 39:257–260Google Scholar
  76. Hogenboom LAP, Kan CA, Bovee TFH, Van der Weg G, Onstenk C, Traag WA (2004) Residues of dioxins and PCBs in fat of growing pigs and broilers fed contaminated feed. Chemosphere 57:35–42Google Scholar
  77. Hoogenboom LAP, Van Eijkeren JCH, Zeilmaker MJ, Mengelers MJB, Herbes R, Traag WA (2006) A novel source for dioxins present in waste fat from gelatine production. Organohalog Compd 68:193–196Google Scholar
  78. Huwe JK, Davison K, Feil VJ, Larsen G, Lorentzsen M, Zaylskie R, Tiernan TO (2004) Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in cattle raised at agricultural research facilities across the USA and the influence of pentachlorophenol-treated wood. Food Addit Contam 21(2):182–194Google Scholar
  79. IPEN International POPs Elimination Network (2004) Comments on the standardized toolkit for identification and quantification of dioxin and furan releases. Cited 31 March 2004)
  80. Ishii K, Furuichi T (2005) Proposal of biological and physico-chemical treatment systems for dioxins-contaminated soils. Organohalogen Compds 67:1020–1023Google Scholar
  81. Isosaari P, Kohonen T, Kiviranta H, Tuomisto J, Vartiainen T (2000) Assessment of levels, distribution, and risks of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the vicinity of a vinyl chloride monomer production plant. Environ Sci Technol 34:2684–2689Google Scholar
  82. Isosaari P, Kankaanpää H, Mattila J, Kiviranta H, Verta M, Salo S, Vartiainen T (2002a) Spatial distribution and temporal accumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in the Gulf of Finland. Environ Sci Technol 36:2560–2565Google Scholar
  83. Isosaari P, Kankaanpää H, Mattila J, Kiviranta H, Verta M, Salo S, Vartiainen T (2002b) Amounts and sources of PCDD/Fs in the Gulf of Finland. Organohalog Compd 59:195–198Google Scholar
  84. Johansen HR, Alexander J, Rossland OJ, Planting S, Levik M, Gaarder PI, Gdynia W, Bjerve KS, Becher G (1996) PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in human blood in relation to consumption of crabs from a contaminated Fjord area in Norway. Environ Health Persp 104:756–764Google Scholar
  85. Johnson GW, Hansen LG, Hamilton MC, Fowler B, Hermanson MH (2008) PCB, PCDD and PCDF congener profiles in two types of Aroclor 1254. Environ Toxicol Phar 25:156–163Google Scholar
  86. Jun J, Hao P, Tang X (2004) An inventory of potential PCDD and PCDF emission sources in the mainland of China. Organohlog Compd 66:852–858Google Scholar
  87. Jürgens H-J, Roth R (1989) Case study and proposed decontamination steps of the soil and groundwater beneath a closed herbicide plant in Germany. Chemosphere 18:1163–1169Google Scholar
  88. Kajiwara J, Todaka T, Hirakawa H, Hori T, Inoue S, Tobiishi K, Onozuka D, Takao Y, Nakagawa R, Iida T, Yoshimura T, Furue M (2007) Time trend of concentrations of dioxin like-PCBs, PCDFs and PCDDs in blood of Yusho patients. Organohalog Comp 69:91–94Google Scholar
  89. Kang Y-S, Taniuchi T, Masunaga S, Nakanishi J (2000) Temporal trend of PCDDs/DFs and dioxin-like PCBs in preserved fish samples from 1953 to 1999. Organohalog Compd 46:318–321Google Scholar
  90. Kannan K, Imagawa T, Blankenship A, Giesy JP (2000) Isomer-specific analysis and toxic evaluation of polychlorinated naphthalenes in soil, sediment, and biota collected near the site of a former chlor-alkali plant. Environ Sci Technol 32:2507–2514Google Scholar
  91. Karouna-Renier NK, Rao RK, Lanza JJ, Davis DA, Wilson PA (2007) Serum profiles of PCDDs and PCDFs in individuals near the Escambia Wood Treating Company Superfund site in Pensacola, FL. Chemosphere 69:1312–1319Google Scholar
  92. Kawamoto K (2002) New sources of dioxins in industrial processes and their influences on water quality. Organohalogen Compds 56:229–232Google Scholar
  93. Keiter S, Grund S, Böttcher M, van Bavel B, Engwall M, Kamman U, Klempt M, Manz W, Olsman H, Seitz N, Wurm K, Braunbeck T, Hollert H (2008) Activities and identification of aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists in sediments from the Danube river. Anal Bioanal Chem 390:2009–2019Google Scholar
  94. Keiter S, Rastall A, Kosmehl T, Erdinger L, Braunbeck T, Hollert H (2006) Ecotoxicological assessment of sediment, suspended matter and water samples in the upper Danube river. A pilot study in search for the causes for the decline of fish catches. Environ Sci Pollut Res 13:308–319Google Scholar
  95. Kiefer DM (2002) It was all about alkali. Today’s Chem Work 11:45–46Google Scholar
  96. Kim K-S, Kim J-G, Shin S-K, Chung I-R, Kim K-S, Song B-J, Jeong M-J (2006) Levels and congener profiles of PCDD/Fs in the environmental media in the vicinity of the waste incinerator, South Korea. Organohalog Compd 68:2264–2267Google Scholar
  97. Kitamura K, Kikuchi Y, Watanabe S, Waechter G, Sakurai H, Takada T (2000) Health effects of chronic exposure to PCDD, PCDF and coplanar PCB of municipal waste incinerator worker. J Epidem 10(4):262–270Google Scholar
  98. Kjeller LO, Rappe C (1995) Time trends in levels, patterns and profiles for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls in a sediment core from the Baltic Proper. Environ Sci Technol 29:346–355Google Scholar
  99. Kleopfer RD (1985) 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD contamination in Missouri. Chemosphere 14:739–744Google Scholar
  100. Knutzen J, Oehme M (1989) Polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) levels in organisms and sediments from the Frierfjord, southern Norway. Chemosphere 19:1897–1909Google Scholar
  101. Kosmehl T, Krebs F, Manz W, Braunbeck T, Hollert H (2007) Differentiation between bioavailable and total hazard potential of sediment Induced DNA fragmentation as measured by the comet assay with zebrafish embryos. J Soils Sediments 7(6):377–387Google Scholar
  102. Kunisue T, Watanabe M, Iwata H, Subramanian A, Monirith I, Minh TB, Baburajendran R, Tana TS, Viet PH, Prudente M, Tanabe S (2004) Dioxins and related compounds in human breast milk collected around open dumping sites in Asian developing countries: bovine milk as a potential source. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 47:414–426Google Scholar
  103. Kunisue T, Ohtake M, Someya M, Subramanian A, Chakraborty P, Tanabe S (2006) Persistent organic pollutants in human breast milk collected around the open dumping site in Kolkata, India. Organohalog Compd 68:1619–1622Google Scholar
  104. Lahl U (2005) In die Pfanne gehauen—die Altlasten aus der Hochzeit der Chlorchemie sind für die heutige Dioxinbelastung von Freilandeiern verantwortlich. Müllmagazin 1:1–6Google Scholar
  105. Lahl U, Wilken M, Zeschmar-Lahl B, Jager J (1991) PCDD/PCDF balance of different waste management methods. Chemosphere 23:1481–1489Google Scholar
  106. Lenk S (2007) Einfluss der Dioxinkontamination im Futter auf die Belastung im Schweinefett. PhD thesis, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  107. Leung AOW, Luksemburg WJ, Wong A, Wong MH (2007) Spatial distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in soil and combusted residue at Guiyu, an electronic waste recycling site in southeast China. Environ Sci Technol 41:2730–2737Google Scholar
  108. Li H, Yu L, Sheng G, Fu J, Peng P (2007) Severe PCDD/F and PBDD/F pollution in air around an electronic waste dismantling area in China. Environ Sci Technol 41:5641–5646Google Scholar
  109. Llerena JJ, Abad E, Caixach J, Rivera J (2003) An episode of dioxin contamination in feeding stuff: the choline chloride case. Chemosphere 53(6):679–683Google Scholar
  110. Lovett AA, Foxall CD, Ball DJ, Creaser CS (1998) The Panteg monitoring project: comparing PCB and dioxin concentrations in the vicinity of industrial facilities. J Hazard Mater 61:175–185Google Scholar
  111. Lutz G, Otto W, Schönberger H (1991) Neue Altlast—hochgradig mit polychlorierten Dibenzofuranen belastete Rückstände aus der Chlorerzeugung gelangten jahrzentelang in die Umwelt. Müllmagazin 4(3):55–60Google Scholar
  112. Malisch R (2000) Increase of the PCDD/F-contamination of milk, butter and meat samples by use of contaminated citrus pulp. Chemosphere 40:1041–1053Google Scholar
  113. Malisch R, van Leeuwen R (2003) Results of the WHO-coordinated exposure study on the levels of PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs in human milk. Organohalog Compd 64:140–143Google Scholar
  114. Malisch R, Gleadle A, Wright C (1999) PCDD/F in meat samples from domestic farm animals and game. Organohalog Compd 43:265–268Google Scholar
  115. Mansour SA (2004) Pesticide exposure—Egyptian scene. Toxicology 198(1–3):91–115Google Scholar
  116. Matter M (2007) Indizien werden immmer deutlicher—die Muttenzer Deponien beeinflussen die Trinkwasserreserven in der Hard. Basler-Zeitung, 19.12.2007Google Scholar
  117. Masuda Y, Kuroki H, Haraguchi K, Nagayama J (1986) PCDFs and related compounds in humans from Yusho and Yu-Cheng incidents. Chemosphere 15:1621–1628Google Scholar
  118. Masunaga S (1999) Toward a time trend analysis of dioxin emission and exposure. Proceeding of the 2nd international workshop on risk evaluation and management of chemicals. Yokohama, 28.1.1999, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  119. Masunaga S (2004) Trend and sources of dioxin pollution in Tokyo Bay, estimated based on the statistical analyses of congener specific data. China–Japan–Korea symposium on environmental analytical chemistry, October 18–21 2004, Beijing, China, pp 127–131Google Scholar
  120. Masunaga S, Takasuga T, Nakanishi J (2001) Dioxin and dioxin-like PCB impurities in some Japanese agrochemical formulations. Chemosphere 44:873–885Google Scholar
  121. Mehag AA, Osborn D (1995) Dioxin release from chemical accidents. Nature 375:353–354Google Scholar
  122. Mendoza G, Gutierrez L, Pozo-Gallardo K, Fuentes-Rios D, Montory M, Urrutia R, Barra R (2006) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in mussels along the Chilean Coast. Environ Sci Pollut Res 13:67–74Google Scholar
  123. Meyer H, Neupert M, Pump W (1993) Flammschutzmittel entscheiden über die Wiederverwertbarkeit. Kunststoffe 83:253–257Google Scholar
  124. Micheletti C, Critto A, Marcomini A (2007) Assessment of ecological risk from bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in a coastal lagoon. Environ Int 33:45–55Google Scholar
  125. Ministry of the Environment Japan (2004) Dioxin emission inventory 2004.
  126. Ministry of the Environment Japan (2006) Dioxin emission inventory 2006.
  127. Mocarelli P (2001) Seveso: a teaching story. Chemosphere 43:391–402Google Scholar
  128. Montague P (2006) The modern approach to problems: prevention. Rachel’s Democracy & Health News #845.
  129. New South Wales Government (2008) Sydney Harbour seafood and dioxins.
  130. Nishimura H, Kumagai M (1983) Mercury pollution of fishes in Minamata Bay and surrounding water analysis of pathway of mercury. Water, Air, Soil Pollut 20:401–411Google Scholar
  131. OECD (2007) Guidance manual for the implementation of the OECD recommendation C (2004)100 on environmentally sound management (ESM) of waste.
  132. Oehme M, Manø S, Bjerke B (1989) Formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins by production processes for magnesium and refined nickel. Chemosphere 18:1379–1389Google Scholar
  133. Olsman H, Hagberg J, Kalbin G, Julander A, van Bavel B, Strid A, Tysklind M, Engwall M (2006) Ah receptor agonists in UV-exposed toluene solutions of decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) and in soils contaminated with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Environ Sci Pollut Res 13:161–169Google Scholar
  134. Olsman H, Schnürer A, Björnfoth H, van Bavel B, Engwall M (2007) Fractionation and determination of Ah receptor (AhR) agonists in organic waste after anaerobic biodegradation and in batch experiments with PCB and decaBDE. Environ Sci Pollut Res 14(Special Issue 1):36–43Google Scholar
  135. Otto W, Schönberger H, Burger D, Weber R (2006) Case study on remediation of a German city contaminated by a chloralkali plant and PCP production. Organohalog Compd 68:880–885Google Scholar
  136. Orica Transformation Project (2008)
  137. Persson NJ, Cousins IT, Molvaer J, Broman D, Naes K (2006) Modelling the long-term fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) in the Grenland Fjords, Norway. Sci Total Environ 369:188–202Google Scholar
  138. Persson Y, Lundstedt S, Öberg L, Tysklind M (2007) Levels of chlorinated compounds (CPs, PCPPs, PCDEs, PCDFs and PCDDs) in soils at contaminated sawmill sites in Sweden. Chemosphere 66:234–242Google Scholar
  139. Persson Y, Shchukarev A, Öberg L, Tysklind M (2008) Dioxins, chlorophenols and other chlorinated organic pollutants in colloidal and water fractions of groundwater from a contaminated sawmill site. Environ Sci Pollut Res. doi: 10.1007/s11356-008-0014-3
  140. Pless-Mulloli T, Edwards R, Päpke O, Schilling B (2000) Report on the analysis of PCDD/PCDF and heavy metals in footpath and soil samples related to the Byker incinerator. Report by the University of Newcastle.
  141. Pless-Mulloli T, Edwards R. Päpke O, Schilling B (2001) PCDD/PCDF and heavy metals in soil and egg samples from Newcastle allotments. Report by the University of Newcastle.
  142. Quaß U, Fermann M, Bröker G (2004) The European dioxin air emission inventory project—final results. Chemosphere 54:1319–1327Google Scholar
  143. Rabe A, Lester S (2005) 25th Anniversary of Superfund, America’s Safety Net in Crisis.
  144. Rappe C, Glas B, Kjeller L-O, Kulp SE (1990) Levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in products and effluents from the Swedish pulp and paper industry and chlor-alkalii process. Chemosphere 20:1701–1706Google Scholar
  145. Rappe C, Kjeller L-O, Kulp SE, de Wit C (1991) Levels, profile and pattern of PCDDs and PCDFs in samples related to the production and use of chlorine. Chemosphere 23:1629–1636Google Scholar
  146. Renner R (2006) Arsenic and old landfills. Environ Sci Technol 40(1):5–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Revich B, Shelepchikov A (2007) Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) hot spots in Russia. In: The fate of persistent organic pollutants in the environment. Springer, The Netherlands, pp 113–126Google Scholar
  148. Revich B, Sergeyev O, Zeilert V, Hauser R (2004) Environmental dioxin contamination in Chapaevsk, Russia: an evaluation of potential human health risks. Organohalog Compd 66:3234–3239Google Scholar
  149. Rügner H, Finkel M, Kaschl A, Bittens M (2006) Application of monitored natural attenuation in contaminated land management—a review and recommended approach for Europe. Environ Sci Pol 9(6):568–576Google Scholar
  150. Ruus A, Berge JA, Bergstad OA, Knutsen JA, Hylland K (2006) Disposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in two Norwegian epibenthic marine food webs. Chemosphere 62:1856–1868Google Scholar
  151. Sakurai T, Weber R, Ueno S, Nishino J, Tanaka M (2003) Relevance of coplanar-PCBs for TEQ emission of fluidized bed incineration and impact of emission control devices. Chemosphere 53:619–625Google Scholar
  152. Sankar TV, Zynudheen AA, Anandan R, Viswanathan Nai PG (2006) Distribution of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metal residues in fish and shellfish from Calicut region, Kerala, India. Chemosphere 65(4):583–590Google Scholar
  153. Santillo D, Johnston P (2006) Effect thresholds and ‘adequate control’ of risks—the fatal flaws in the EU Council’s position on authorisation within REACH. Environ Sci Pollut Res 13:425–431Google Scholar
  154. Santillo D, Fernandes A, Stringer R, Alcock R, Rose M, White S, Jones K, Johnston P (2003) Butter as an indicator of regional persistent organic pollutant contamination—further development of the approach using polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Food Addit Contam 20(3):281–290Google Scholar
  155. Sapien J (2007) Superfund today—massive undertaking to clean up hazardous waste sites has lost both momentum and funding. Center for Public Integrity.
  156. Schecter A (eds) (1994) Dioxins and health. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  157. Schmid P, Gujer E, Zennegg M, Studer C (2003) Temporal and local trends of PCDD/F levels in cow’s milk in Switzerland. Chemosphere 53:129–136Google Scholar
  158. Schnittger P (2001) Sanierung der Deponie Georgswerder in Hamburg in Handbuch der Altlastensanierung, RdNr. 7. C. F. Müller Verlag, Hüthig GmbH & Co. KG HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  159. Scholz B, Engler M (1987) Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in wastes of technical hexachlorocyclohexane. Chemosphere 16:1829–1834Google Scholar
  160. Schwab K, Brack W (2007) Large volume TENAX® extraction of the bioaccessible fraction of sediment-associated organic compounds for a subsequent effect-directed analysis. J Soils Sediments 7(4):178–186Google Scholar
  161. Schwartz R, Gerth J, Neumann-Hensel H, Förstner U (2006) Assessment of highly polluted Fluvisol in the Spittelwasser floodplain based on national guideline values and MNA-criteria. J Soils Sediments 6(3):145–155Google Scholar
  162. SC Stockholm Convention (2001)
  163. Secretariat of the Stockholm Convention (2006) Guidelines on best available techniques and provisional guidance on best environmental practices. Revised draft, Geneva, December 2006.
  164. Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) (2000) Opinion on the risk assessment of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food. SCF/CS/CNTM/DIOXIN/8 FinalGoogle Scholar
  165. Seike N, Otani T, Ueji M, Takasuga T, Tsuzuki N (2003) Temporal change of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls source in paddy soils. J Environ Chem 13:117–131 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  166. Seike N, Kashiwagi N, Otani T (2007) PCDD/F Contamination over time in Japanese paddy soils. Environ Sci Technol 41(7):2210–2215Google Scholar
  167. Seiler TB, Rastall AC, Leist E, Erdinger L, Braunbeck T, Hollert H (2006) Membrane dialysis extraction (MDE)—a novel approach for extracting toxicologically relevant hydro-phobic organic compounds from soils and sediments for assessment in biotests. J Soils Sediments 6:20–29Google Scholar
  168. Shen CF, Huang SB, Wang Z, Qiao M, Tang X, Nayu C, Shi D, Zhu Y, Yanshi J, Chen X, Setty K, Chen Y (2008) Identification of Ah receptor agonists in soil of e-waste recycling sites from Taizhou area in China. Environ Sci Technol 42:49–55Google Scholar
  169. Stachel B, Christoph EH, Götz R, Herrmann T, Krüger F, Kühn T, Lay L, Löffler J, Päpke O, Reincke H, Schröter-Kermani C, Schwartz R, Steeg E, Stehr D, Uhlig S, Umlauf G (2007) Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in different fish from the river Elbe and its tributaries, Germany. J Hazard Mater 147:199–209Google Scholar
  170. Stellmann MJ, Stellmann SD, Christian R, Weber T, Tomasallo C (2003) The extent and patterns of usage of Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam. Nature 422:681–687Google Scholar
  171. Stringer R, Johnston P (2001) Chlorine and the environment—an overview on the chlorine industry. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  172. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (2005) Survey of sources of unintentionally produced substances. Report for the Swedish GovernmentGoogle Scholar
  173. Sundqvist K, Tysklind M, Cato I, Wiberg K (2006) Spatial distribution and profiles of dioxins in surface sediment from the Baltic Sea. Organohalog Compd 68:444–447Google Scholar
  174. Takasuga T, Kumar KS, Noma Y, Sakai S (2005) Chemical characterization of polychlorinated biphenyls, -dibenzo-p-dioxins, and -dibenzofurans in technical kanechlor PCB formulations in Japan. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 49:385–395Google Scholar
  175. Takata T (2003) Survey on the health effects of chronic exposure to dioxins and its accumulation on workers of a municipal solid waste incinerator, rural part of Osaka Prefecture, and the results of extended survey afterwards. Ind Health 41:189–196Google Scholar
  176. Tariq MI, Afzal S, Hussain I, Sultana N (2007) Pesticides exposure in Pakistan—a review. Environ Int 33(8):1107–1122Google Scholar
  177. Tasaki T, Takasuga T, Osako M, Sakai S (2004) Substance flow analysis of brominated flame retardants and related compounds in waste TV sets in Japan. Waste Manage 24:571–580Google Scholar
  178. Tawara K, Nishijo M, Nakagawa H, Kido T, Naganuma R, Suzuki H, Hung TM, Thom LTH, Dung PT, Nhu D (2006) Areal differences of concentration levels of PCDD and PCDF in human breast milk from Vietnam and Japan. Organohalog Compd 68:1655–1658Google Scholar
  179. Theisen J, Maulshagen A, Fuchs J (1993) Organic and inorganic substances in the copper slag ‘Kieselrot’. Chemosphere 26:881–896Google Scholar
  180. Thacker NP, Nitnaware VC, Das SK, Devotta S (2007) Dioxin formation in pulp and paper mills of India. Environ Sci Pollut Res 14:225–226Google Scholar
  181. TNO (1999) Monitored natural attenuation: review of existing guidelines and protocols. TNO-MEP-R 99/313.
  182. Torres JPM, Leite C, Krauss T, Weber R (2008) A contaminated site from the chlorine/organochlorine industry as source of PCDD/F contamination of citrus pulp pellets used as animal feed in Europe during the late 1990’s. Organohalogen Compd 70, acceptedGoogle Scholar
  183. Treue W (1967) Die Entwicklung der chemischen Industrie von 1770 bis 1870. Chemie Ing Techn 39(17):1002–1008Google Scholar
  184. Turrio-Baldassarri L, Abate V, Alivernini S, Battistelli CL, Carasi S, Casella M, Iacovella N, Iamiceli AL, Indelicato L, Scarcella C, La Rocca C (2007) A study on PCB, PCDD/PCDF industrial contamination in a mixed urban-agricultural area significantly affecting the food chain and the human exposure. Part I: soil and feed. Chemosphere 67:1822–1830Google Scholar
  185. Tysklind M, Persson Y, Frankki S, Öberg L, Skyllberg U (2006) Chlorophenol sites in Sweden—major dioxin reservoir with complex contamination pattern. Organohalog Compd 68:895–898Google Scholar
  186. UBA (German Environmental Agency) (1985) Sachstand Dioxine, pp 21–24Google Scholar
  187. UNEP (1999) Dioxin and furan inventories—national and regional emissions of PCDD/PCDF. In: Fiedler H, Report by UNEP Chemicals, Geneva, Switzerland, May 1999Google Scholar
  188. UNEP (2002) Global mercury assessment. Report by UNEP Chemicals, Geneva, Switzerland, December 2002, p 129.
  189. UNEP (2005a) Standardized toolkit for identification and quantification of dioxin and furan releases, 2nd edn. UNEP Chemicals, Geneva, Switzerland, February 2005.
  190. UNEP (2005b) E-waste, the hidden side of IT equipment's manufacturing and use. Environment Alert Bulletin 5, January 2005.
  191. US EPA (1991) PCB, lead and cadmium levels in shredder waste materials: a pilot study. EPA 560/5-90-00BA, April 1991Google Scholar
  192. US EPA (1994) Estimating exposure to dioxin-like compounds, vol 1–3. Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, EPA/6006-88/005, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  193. Van den Berg M, Birnbaum LS, Denison M, De Vito M, Farland W, Feeley M, Fiedler H, Hakansson H, Hanberg A, Haws L, Rose M, Safe S, Schrenk D, Tohyama C, T, ritscher A, Tuomisto J, Tysklind M, Walker N, Peterson RE (2006) The 2005 World Health Organization re-evaluation of human and mammalian toxic equivalency factors for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Toxicol Sci 93(2):223–241Google Scholar
  194. Verta M, Salo S, Korhonen M, Kiviranta H, Assmuth T, Koistinen J, Ruokojärvi P, Isosaari Bergqvist P-A, Tysklind M, Cato I (2007) Dioxin concentrations in sediments of the Baltic Sea—a survey of existing data. Chemosphere 67:1762–1775Google Scholar
  195. Vijgen J, Yi LF, Forter M, Lal R, Weber R (2006) The legacy of lindane and technical HCH production. Organohalog Compd 68:899–904Google Scholar
  196. Watson A (2001) Comments on the ‘Report on the analysis of PCDD/PCDF and heavy metals in soil and egg samples related to the Byker incinerator’.
  197. Weber R (2007a) 26th international symposium on halogenated environmental organic pollutants and POPs (Dioxin 2006). Environ Sci Pollut Res 14(1):72–73Google Scholar
  198. Weber R (2007b) Relevance of PCDD/PCDF formation for the evaluation of POPs destruction technologies—review on current status and assessment gaps. Chemosphere 67:109–117Google Scholar
  199. Weber R, Kuch B (2003) Relevance of BFRs and thermal conditions on the formation pathways of brominated and brominated-chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans. Environment International 29:699–710Google Scholar
  200. Weber R, Masunaga S (2005) PCDD/PCDF contamination from historical pesticide use and production—a case study using data from Japan and Germany. International HCH and Pesticides Forum, 26–28 May 2005, Sofia, Bulgaria. Scholar
  201. Weber R, Iino F, Imagawa T, Takeuchi M, Sakurai T, Sadakata (2001) Formation of PCDF, PCDD, PCB, and PCN in de novo synthesis from PAH: Mechanisms and correlation to fluidized bed incinerators. Chemosphere 44:1429–1438Google Scholar
  202. Weber R, Yoshida S, Miwa K (2002) PCB destruction in subcritical and supercritical water—evaluation of PCDF formation and initial steps of degradation mechanism. Environ Sci Technol 36(8):1833–1838Google Scholar
  203. Weber R, Behnisch PA, Brouwer A, van Bavel B, Lindstroem G, Zennegg M, Schilling B, Paepke O (2006a) Contemporary relevance of dioxin and dioxin-like compound contaminations in residues from recycling of HCH waste. Organohalog Compd 68:905–910Google Scholar
  204. Weber J, Kreutzmann J, Plantikow A, Pfitzner S, Claus E, Manz W, Heininger P (2006b) A novel particle contact assay with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for ecotoxicological assessment of freshwater sediments. J Soils Sediments 6:84–91Google Scholar
  205. Weber R, Tysklind M, Gaus C (2008) Dioxin—contemporary and future challenges of historical legacies (editorial, dedicated to Otto Hutzinger). Environ Sci Pollut Res 15(2):96–100Google Scholar
  206. Weidenbach T, Kerner I, Radek D (1984) Dioxin die chemische Zeitbombe. Verlag Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Köln, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  207. Weiss J, Päpke O, Bergman A (2001) PCDDs/PCDFs and related contaminants in butter originating from 39 countries worldwide. Organohalog Compd 51:271–274Google Scholar
  208. Wenborn M, King K, Buckley-Golder D, Gascon J (1999) Releases of dioxins and furans to land and water in Europe. Final report. Report produced for Landesumweltamt Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany on behalf of European Commission DG Environment, SeptemberGoogle Scholar
  209. Westrich B, Förstner U (2005) Sediment dynamics and pollutant mobility in rivers (SEDYMO) assessing catchment-wide emission-immission relationships from sediment studies. BMBF coordinated research project SEDYMO (2002–2006). J Soils Sediments 5:197–200Google Scholar
  210. Wilken M, Walkow F, Jager E, Zeschmar-Lahl B (1994) Flooding area and sediment contamination of the river Mulde (Germany) with PCDD/F and other organic pollutants. Chemosphere 29:2237–2252Google Scholar
  211. Wilken M, Martin G, Lamparski L, Denney P, Baker B (2006a) Pattern recognition in floodplain samples. Organohalog Compd 68:22371–2374Google Scholar
  212. Wilken M, Martin G, Lamparski L, Hescott T, Mendyk K, Wallbaum U (2006b) PCDF formation from dibenzofuran in artificial brine. Organohalog Compd 68:844–847Google Scholar
  213. Wilm KH (2007) Our food—database of food and related sciences.
  214. Wölz J, Engwall M, Maletz S, Olsmann H, van Bavel B, Kammann U, Klempt, M, Weber R, Braunbeck T, Hollert H (2008) Changes in toxicity and dioxin-like activity of suspended particulate matter during flood events at the rivers Neckar and Rhine. Environ Sci Pollut Res (in press)Google Scholar
  215. Wong MH, Wu SC, Deng WJ, Yu XZ, Luo Q, Leung AOW, Wong CSC, Luksemburg WJ, Wong AS (2007) Export of toxic chemicals—a review of the case of uncontrolled electronic-waste recycling. Environ Pollut 149:131–140Google Scholar
  216. Wu WZ, Schramm K-W, Xu Y, Kettrup A (2001) Accumulation and partition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in the muscle and liver of fish. Chemosphere 43:633–641Google Scholar
  217. Wycisk P, Neumann Ch, Gossel W (2005) Flooding induced effects from the mining lake Goitzsche on the groundwater situation and sensitivity of land-use units in the Bitterfeld area. Acta Hydroch Hydrob 33(5):507–518Google Scholar
  218. Xu Y, Zhang Q, Wu W, Li W (2000) Patterns and levels of PCDD/F in a Chinese graphite electrode sludge. Chinese Sci Bull 45(16):1471–1476Google Scholar
  219. Young AL (2006) Enhanced co-metabolism of TCDD in the presence of high concentrations of phenoxy herbicides. Environ Sci Pollut Res 13:149–150Google Scholar
  220. Young AL, Van Houten WJ, Andrews WB (2008) 2nd Agent Orange and dioxin remediation workshop. Hanoi, Viet Nam, 18–20 June 2007. Environ Sci Pollut Res 15(2):113–118Google Scholar
  221. Yu X., Zennegg M, Engwall M., Rotander A, Larsson M, Wong MH, Weber R (2008) E-waste recycling heavily contaminates a Chinese city with chlorinated, brominated and mixed halogenated dioxins. Organohalog Compd 70, acceptedGoogle Scholar
  222. Zennegg M, Kohler M, Hartmann PC, Sturm M, Gujer E, Schmid P, Gerecke AC, Heeb NV, Kohler HPE, Giger W (2007) The historical record of PCB and PCDD/F deposition at Greifensee, a lake of the Swiss plateau, between 1848 and 1999. Chemosphere 57:1754–1761Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roland Weber
    • 1
    Email author
  • Caroline Gaus
    • 2
  • Mats Tysklind
    • 3
  • Paul Johnston
    • 4
  • Martin Forter
    • 5
  • Henner Hollert
    • 6
  • Emanuel Heinisch
    • 7
  • Ivan Holoubek
    • 8
  • Mariann Lloyd-Smith
    • 9
  • Shigeki Masunaga
    • 10
  • Paolo Moccarelli
    • 11
  • David Santillo
    • 4
  • Nobuyasu Seike
    • 12
  • Robert Symons
    • 13
  • Joao Paulo Machado Torres
    • 14
  • Matti Verta
    • 15
  • Gerd Varbelow
    • 16
  • John Vijgen
    • 17
  • Alan Watson
    • 18
  • Pat Costner
    • 19
  • Jan Woelz
    • 6
  • Peter Wycisk
    • 20
  • Markus Zennegg
    • 21
  1. 1.POPs Environmental ConsultingGöppingenGermany
  2. 2.National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (EnTox)Coopers PlainsAustralia
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryUmeå UniversityUmeåSweden
  4. 4.Greenpeace Research Laboratories, Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of ExeterExeterUK
  5. 5.BaselSwitzerland
  6. 6.Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V)RWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany
  7. 7.ForchheimGermany
  8. 8.RECETOX, National POPs CentreCR Central and Eastern European Regional POPs CentreBrnoCzech Republic
  9. 9.National Toxics Network Inc.East BallinaAustralia
  10. 10.Graduate School of Environment and Information SciencesYokohama National UniversityYokohama-shiJapan
  11. 11.School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Hospital of Desio-MilanUniversity Milano-BicoccaDesioItaly
  12. 12.Organochemicals DivisionNational Institute for Agro-Environmental SciencesTsukubaJapan
  13. 13.National Measurement InstituteDioxin Analysis UnitPymbleAustralia
  14. 14.Instituto de BiofisicaFederal University of the Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  15. 15.Finnish Environment InstituteHelsinkiFinland
  16. 16.GernsbachGermany
  17. 17.Internatial HCH and Pesticide AssociationHolteDenmark
  18. 18.Public Interest ConsultantsSwanseaUK
  19. 19.Owltree Environmental ConsultingEureka SpringsUSA
  20. 20.Hydro- and Environmental GeologyMartin Luther UniversityHalle/SaaleGermany
  21. 21.Laboratory for Analytical ChemistrySwiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA)DübendorfSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations