Landscape and Ecological Engineering

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 269–276 | Cite as

Evaluation of a field experiment for the conservation of a Magnolia stellata stand using clear-cutting

  • Ichiro TamakiEmail author
  • Katsushige Nomura
  • Reiko Nomura
  • Chieko Tate
  • Chikara Watanabe
  • Yoshihiro Miyakami
  • Yumiko Yabe


Magnolia stellata is a rare subcanopy tree species that grows in secondary forests in warm temperate zones. It is now endangered due to habitat degradation by vegetation succession. In an attempt to improve the habitat, a 30 m × 10 m plot (0.03 ha) was set up with all vegetation including M. stellata being clear-cut in January 2012. The number of sprouts increased for 1–2 years after clear-cutting and then gradually decreased or remained constant. Five years after clear-cutting, the numbers of individuals and stems, and the total basal area (BA), were 87.0, 165.5 and 3.2%, respectively, of the values before clear-cutting. BA was highest for Ilex pedunculosa, followed by M. stellata and Hydrangea paniculata. Some sprouted individuals of M. stellata produced flower buds in the second year after clear-cutting, and flowered and fruited in the spring and summer of the third year, respectively. The densities of potential canopy species were 18,533 ha−1 (height > 0.5 m) and 7,267 ha−1 (height > 1.2 m), vastly exceeding the value of the criterion for successful natural regeneration after clear-cutting of warm temperate forests in the region (3,000 ha−1). Based on this criterion, it is thus considered that the natural regeneration has reached completion. However, 45.1% (height > 0.5 m) and 95.5% (height > 1.2 m) of M. stellata individuals were regenerated by sprouting. Further research is needed into how individuals, regenerated from seedlings, develop and reach sexual maturity, and how successive generations change.


Natural regeneration Satoyama Secondary forest Sprouting Warm temperate 



We are grateful to members of the Forestry and Park and the Environment Sections of Tajimi City Government and the Tajimi City Cultural Properties Preservation Center for help with the field experiment. We thank Drs. Nao Yanagisawa and Michinari Matsushita for their helpful comments on the previous manuscript.


There is no funding related to this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.

Supplementary material

11355_2018_348_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (160 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 160 kb)


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Copyright information

© International Consortium of Landscape and Ecological Engineering and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Gifu Academy of Forest Science and CultureMinoJapan
  2. 2.Association for Green NatureTajimiJapan
  3. 3.Association for Conservation of Shidekobushi and NatureTokiJapan
  4. 4.Forestry and Park Section of Tajimi City GovernmentTajimiJapan
  5. 5.Environment Section of Tajimi City GovernmentTajimiJapan
  6. 6.Tajimi City Cultural Properties Preservation CenterTajimiJapan

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