Landscape and Ecological Engineering

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 33–43 | Cite as

Landscape ecology and urban biodiversity in tropical Indonesian cities

  • Hadi Susilo ArifinEmail author
  • Nobukazu Nakagoshi
Special Feature: Report Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Importance of Cities for post 2010 perspective


Indonesia has recently been faced with a number of great problems: poverty, natural disasters such as tsunami, earthquakes, flooding and typhoons, volcanic eruptions, loss of biodiversity, decreasing water quality and quantity, increased pollution, and aesthetic degradation of the landscape. These disturbances have been caused by rapid changes in land use and land cover, deforestation, the application of monoculture farming systems in commercial agriculture, urbanization, industrialization, and other types of infrastructure development. The government, urban communities and companies have promoted some programs to ameliorate the problem of environmental degradation. The government has ratified law no. 26/2007 as a commitment to sustainability; this law ensures that cities are obliged to provide green open spaces covering a minimum of 30% of urbanized areas. Many metropolitan cities have feverishly enacted policies to promote greening programs, such as those applied in Jakarta. However, a new town—Sentul City—has engaged in policies that aim to create a well-designed eco-city with urban greenery and ecological networks. This new policy is supposed to herald a better future for urban quality. It is expected that green spaces will provide environmental services: water resource management, biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration, and landscape beauty.


Biodiversity Carbon sequestration Ecological network Ecosystem services Green space Indigenous species 



The authors would like to express special thanks to the Organizing Committee of Urban Biodiversity and Design URBIO2010—Implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity in Towns and Cities (international conference held in Nagoya, Japan, on 18–22 May 2010) for giving us the opportunity to publish this keynote paper in a special edition of Landscape and Ecological Engineering. We also express our gratitude to the Directorate General of Higher Education (DIKTI)—Indonesia for its support of our research through a competency grant (Hibah Kompetensi) for 2008–2010, and thank the GELs Programme of Hiroshima University for their support of this paper. Finally, we thank Diane Wildsmith M.Sc. Arch.—IDC/UI for proofreading this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© International Consortium of Landscape and Ecological Engineering and Springer 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Landscape Management Laboratory, Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of AgricultureBogor Agricultural University (IPB)BogorIndonesia
  2. 2.Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation (IDEC)Hiroshima UniversityHigashi-HiroshimaJapan

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