Landscape and Ecological Engineering

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 9–16 | Cite as

Biodiversity and ecosystem services in urban areas for smart adaptation to climate change: “Do you Kyoto”?

  • Yukihiro MorimotoEmail author
Special Feature: Report Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Importance of Cities for post 2010 perspective


Kyoto is an old city blessed with beautiful natural and cultural landscapes. With the long history of the various events and responses to them, Kyoto is expected to offer some insight into how to create a sustainable city with resilience relevant to its historical inheritances and biodiversity. In this paper, we attempt to describe some concepts of developments and responses that could mitigate the negative impact of urbanization on its biodiversity and ecosystem services. (1) Modern city planning considering natural amenities as well as old Feng-shui geomancy theory could conserve the surrounding mountains. Down-zoning and vistaed view preservation are examples. (2) Inside the city areas, the theory of island biogeography is applicable for biodiversity planning, and the size of the isolated greenery is the most important factor for species richness of all taxonomic groups. However, a single large patch is not always sufficient to conserve as many species as possible. Moreover, the heterogeneity of the environment, which is formed by its design and management, plays an important role in species richness. Japanese gardens and the created wildlife habitat park are good solutions for biodiversity. (3) The nature of rivers and wetland systems has been severely degraded in the urbanization process. However, the excellent Katsura detached palace garden and Oguraike wetland system, which were one-time national monuments with high biodiversity, suggest a smart adaptation to the increasing risk of flooding by climate change: “Do you Kyoto”?


Kyoto Sustainability Low-carbon society Biodiversity Biodiversity-conscious city Smart adaptation 



This study was partly supported by a Grant in Aid for Scientific Research (18201008 and 222419010) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. Though only my name appears as the author, a great many colleagues and students contributed to establishing the basic data of urban landscape ecology of Kyoto. I especially appreciate Dr. Natuhara (Nagoya University), Dr. Hashimoto (Meijo University), Dr. Murakami (Natural History Museum of Kishiwada), Dr. Ohishi (Shinshu University), Dr. Tabata (Kinki University), and Dr. Imanishi (Kyoto University) for joining the study to seek a biocity solution.


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Copyright information

© International Consortium of Landscape and Ecological Engineering and Springer 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Landscape Ecology and Planning, Graduate School of Global Environmental StudiesKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

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