Landscape and Ecological Engineering

, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 169–181 | Cite as

Effects of fine sediment accumulation on the redd environment and the survival rate of masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) embryos

  • Hiroyuki YamadaEmail author
  • Futoshi Nakamura
Original Paper


In recent years, fine sediment, produced by run-off associated with forestry activity and agricultural development that accumulates on riverbeds, has exerted a deleterious influence on lotic ecosystems. This study examined the Oroennukibetsu River, a tributary of the Nukibetsu River, which has been affected by high loads of suspended sediments. Effects of accumulation of fine sediment on the survival rate of masu salmon embryo and also on the redd environment (permeability and intragravel dissolved oxygen concentration) were quantified through a field experiment. Results show that the interchange of DO between intragravel and surface water was not affected directly by permeability or the accumulated fine sediment and that intragravel flow rates can be an important factor controlling embryo survival. A decrease in permeability associated with accumulation of fine sediment lowered the survival rate of embryos by suffocation because the flux of DO that should be supplied to the embryo was severely limited. This situation might be created by the combined effects of an accumulation of fine sediment on the redd and a low DO concentration in the surface water because the DO concentration almost coincided with the intragravel DO.


Dissolved oxygen Eyed egg Flux Hyporheic Pool-riffle 



We would like to express our gratitude to Dr. Miyuki Nakajima and the staff of the Hokkaido Fish Hatchery, and Dr. Akiko Nagasaka in the Hokkaido Forestry Research Institute, and Professor Seiji Yanai, Hokkaido Institute of Technology, for providing embryos, data, and other generous cooperation. We also thank Professors Tohru Araya, Koji Maekawa, Takashi Yamada, and Shun-ichi Kikuchi, Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, and Professors Makoto Nishigaki and Mitsuru Komatsu, Department of Environmental and Civil Engineering, Okayama University, for useful advice. We are also grateful to Mrs. Tomoko Yamada, Ms. Marie Murakami, and students in the Department of Forest Science, Hokkaido University, for assistance. This research was supported in part by Grants in Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (nos. 13460061, 14380274, 14506039, and 17780242) and by funds from the Technology Research Center for Riverfront Development; the River Environment Fund (REF) of the Foundation of River and Watershed Environment Management (FOREM); the workshop fund of Japan Society of Erosion Control Engineering.


  1. Allan JD, Erickson DL, Fay J (1997) The influence of catchment land use on stream integrity across multiple spatial scales. Freshw Biol 37:149–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barton BA (1977) Short-term effects of highway construction on the limnology of a small stream in southern Ontario. Freshw Biol 7:99–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baxter CV, Hauer FR (2000) Geomorphology, hyporheic exchange, and selection of spawning habitat by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 57:1470–1481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berkman HE, Rabeni CF (1987) Effect of siltation on stream fish communities. Environ Biol Fish 18:285–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bjornn TC, Reiser DW (1991) Habitat requirements of salmonids in streams. In: Meehan WR (ed) Influence of forest and rangeland management on salmonid fishes and their habitats, American Fisheries Society Special Publication, vol 19, pp 83–138Google Scholar
  6. Bjornn TC (1968) Survival and emergence of trout and salmon fry in various gravel-sand mixtures. Logging and Salmon: Proceedings of a Forum, American Institute of Fishery Research Biologists, Alaska, pp 80–88 1968Google Scholar
  7. Boulton AJ, Findlay S, Marmonier P, Stanley EH, Valett HM (1998) The functional significance of the hyporheic zone in streams and rivers. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 29:59–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cederholm CJ, Reid LM, (1981) Salo EO Cumulative effects of logging road sediment on salmonid populations in Clearwater River, Jefferson County, Washington. Proceedings of a conference on salmon spawning gravel: a renewable resource in the Pacific Northwest. Water Research Center Report 39, Washington State University, Pullman, pp 38–74 1981Google Scholar
  9. Chapman DW (1988) Critical review of variables used to define effect of fines in redds of large salmonids. Trans Am Fish Soc 117:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cline LD, Short RA, Ward JV (1982) The influence of highway construction on the macroinvertebrates and epilithic algae of a high mountain stream. Hydrobiologia 96:149–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Coble DW (1961) Influence of water exchange and dissolved oxygen in redd on survival of steelhead trout embryos. Trans Am Fish Soc 90:469–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cooper AC (1965) The effect of transported stream sediments on survival of sockeye and pink salmon eggs and alevin. International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission Bulletin 18Google Scholar
  13. Extence CA (1978) The effects of motorway construction on an urban stream. Environ Pollut 17:245–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gangmark HA, Bakkala RG (1960) A comparative study of unstable and stable (artificial channel) spawning streams for incubating King salmon at Mill Creek. Calif Fish Game 46:151–164Google Scholar
  15. Greig SM, Sear DA, Carling PA (2005) The impact of fine sediment accumulation on the survival of incubating salmon progeny: implications for sediment management. Sci Total Environ 344:241–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Greig SM, Sear DA, Carling PA (2007) A review of factors influencing the availability of dissolved oxygen to incubating salmonid embryos. Hydrol Process 21:323–334. doi: 10.1002/hyp.6188 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hausle DA, Coble DW (1976) Influence of sand in redds on survival and emergence of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Trans Am Fish Soc 105:57–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hellawell JM (1986) Biological indicators of freshwater pollution and environmental management. Elsevier Applied Science, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  19. Hokkaido Forestry Research Institute, Hokkaido Fish Hatchery, Hokkaido Central Agricultural Experiment Station (1998) Study of riparian environment restoration in rural areas, Bulletin of Hokkaido Forestry Research Institute, Hokkaido Fish Hatchery and Hokkaido Central Agricultural Experiment Station: 1–76 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  20. Hokkaido Forestry Research Institute, Hokkaido Fish Hatchery, Hokkaido Central Agricultural Experiment Station (1999) Study of riparian environment restoration in rural areas, Bulletin of Hokkaido Forestry Research Institute, Hokkaido Fish Hatchery and Hokkaido Central Agricultural Experiment Station: 1–109 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  21. Hokkaido Forestry Research Institute, Hokkaido Fish Hatchery, Hokkaido Central Agricultural Experiment Station (2000) Study of riparian environment restoration in rural areas, Bulletin of Hokkaido Forestry Research Institute, Hokkaido Fish Hatchery and Hokkaido Central Agricultural Experiment Station: 1–99 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  22. Hvorslev MJ (1951) Time lag and soil permeability in ground-water observations. U.S. Corps of Eng Waterways Exp Sta Vicksburg Miss Bull 36: 50 Google Scholar
  23. Japan Weather Association (2000) AMeDAS annual report (CD-ROM), Japan Meteorological Business Support Center, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  24. Japan Weather Association (2001) Annual report of precipitation, water level and discharge (uryo suii ryuuryo nenpyou), Doboku Society of Hokkaido, SapporoGoogle Scholar
  25. Kato F (1991) Life histories of masu and amago salmon (Oncorhynchus masou and Oncorhynchus rhodurus). In: Groot C and Margolis L (eds) Pacific Salmon Life Histories, UBC Press, Vancouver, pp 447–520Google Scholar
  26. Kawajiri M (1925) On the oxygen consumption during development of the eggs and fly of the masu salmon (O. masou land-locked). Jpn Imp Fish Inst 21(2):18–20Google Scholar
  27. Koski KV (1966) The survival of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from egg deposition to emergence in three Oregon coastal streams. Masters thesis, Oregon State University, CorvallisGoogle Scholar
  28. Malcolm IA, Soulsby C, Youngson A, Petry J (2003a) Heterogeneity in ground water–surface water interactions in the hyporheic zone of a salmonid spawning stream: towards integrating hydrometric and tracer approaches. Hydrol Process 17:601–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Malcolm IA, Youngson A, Soulsby C (2003b) Survival of salmonid eggs in gravel bed streams: effects of groundwater–surface water interactions. River Res Appl 19(4):303–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Malcolm IA, Soulsby C, Youngson AF, Hannah DM, McLaren IS, Thorne A (2004) Hydrological influences on hyporheic water quality: implications for salmon egg survival. Hydrol Process 18:1543–1560. doi: 10.1002/hyp.1405 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mayama H (1992) Studies of the freshwater life and propagation technology of masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou Brevoot). Sci Rep Hokkaido Salmon Hatch 46:1–156 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  32. McNeil WJ, Ahnell WH (1964) Success of pink salmon spawning relative size of spawning bed materials. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Spatial Scientific Report Fisheries, p 469Google Scholar
  33. Murakami M, Yamada H, Nakamura F (2001) Hydraulic conductivity of substrate and openwork gravel rate associated with fine sediment deposition in mountain streams, southern Hokkaido. Ecol Civ Eng 4(2):109–120 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  34. Nagasaka A, Nakajima M, Yanai S, Nagasaka Y (2000) Influences of substrate composition on stream habitat and macroinvertebrate communities: a comparative experiment in a forested and an agricultural catchment. Ecol Civ Eng 3:234–254 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  35. Nakamura F, Yamada H (2005) Effects of pasture development on ecological functions of riparian forests in Hokkaido in northern Japan. Ecol Eng 24:539–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nakamura F, Sudo T, Kameyama S, Jitsu M (1997) Influences of channelization on discharge of suspended sediment and wetland vegetation in Kushiro Marsh, northern Japan. Geomorphology 18:279–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nakamura F, Kameyama S, Mizugaki S (2004) Rapid shrinkage of Kushiro Mire, the largest mire in Japan, due to increased sedimentation associated with land-use development in the catchment. Catena 55:213–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nakamura F, Kawaguchi Y, Nakano D, Yamada H (2008) Ecological responses to anthropogenic alterations of gravel-bed rivers in Japan, from floodplain river segments to the microhabitat scale: a review. In: Habersack H, Pie′gay H, Rinaldi M (eds).Gravel-Bed Rivers VI: from process understanding to river restoration, Elsevier, pp 501–523Google Scholar
  39. Olsen DA, Townsend CR (2003) Hyporheic community composition in a gravel-bed stream: influence of vertical hydrological exchange, sediment structure and physicochemistry. Freshw Biol 48:1363–1378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Phillips RW, Campbell HJ (1961) The embryonic survival of coho salmon and steelhead trout as influenced by some environmental conditions in gravel beds. 14th Annual Report of the Pacific Marine Fisheries Commission. Portland, Oregon, pp 60–73Google Scholar
  41. Platts WS, Shirazi MA, Lewis DH (1979) Sediment particle sizes used by salmon for spawning with methods for evaluation. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA 600/3-79-043. Corvallis, OregonGoogle Scholar
  42. Platts WS, Torquemada RJ, McHenry ML, Graham CK (1989) Changes in salmon spawning and rearing habitat from increased delivery of fine sediment to the South Fork Salmon River, Idaho. Trans Am Fish Soc 118:274–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Reiser DW, White RG (1981) Incubation of steelhead trout and spring Chinook salmon eggs in a moist environment. Prog Fish-Cult 43:131–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rubin JF, Glimsater C (1996) Egg-to-fry survival of the sea trout in some streams of Gotland. J Fish Biol 48:585–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sato H, Yanai S, Nagasaka Y, Nagasaka A, Sato H (2002) Influence of land use on suspended sediment discharge from watersheds emptying into Funka Bay, southwestern Hokkaido, northern Japan. J Jpn Soc Hydrol Water Resour 152:117–127 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  46. Soulsby C, Malcolm I, Youngson A (2001) Hydrochemistry of the hyporheic zone in salmon spawning gravels: a preliminary assessment in a small regulated stream. Regul River Res Manage 17:651–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sowden TK, Power G (1985) Prediction of rainbow trout embryo survival in relation to groundwater seepage and particle size of spawning substrates. Trans Am Fish Soc 114:804–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sugimoto S, Nakamura F, Ito A (1997) Heat budget and statistical analysis of the relationship between stream temperature and riparian forest in the Toikanbetsu Stream, northern Japan. J For Res 2:103–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sugiwaka K, Takeuchi K, Suzuki K, Nagata M, Miyamoto M, Kawamura H (1999) Distribution and structure of spawning redds of masu salmon in the Atsuta River. Sci Rep Hokkaido Fish Hatch 53:11–28 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  50. Tagart JV (1976) The survival from egg deposition to emergence of coho salmon in the Clearwater River, Jefferson County, Washington. Master’s thesis, University of Washington, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  51. Tagart JV (1984) Coho salmon survival from egg deposition to emergence. In: Walton JM Houston DB (eds) Proceedings of the Olympic Wild Fish Conference, Peninsula College, Fisheries Technology Program, Port Angeles, Washington, pp 173–182Google Scholar
  52. Tappel PD, Bjornn TC (1983) A new method of relating size of spawning gravel to salmonid embryo survival. North Am J Fish Manag 3:123–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Vaux WG (1962) Interchange of stream and intergravel water in a salmon spawning riffle. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service SSRGoogle Scholar
  54. Vining TJ, Blakely S, Freeman GM (1985) An evaluation of the incubation life-phase of chum salmon in the middle Susitna River, Alaska. Alaska Department of Fish and Game Report 5, AnchorageGoogle Scholar
  55. Watanabe K, Nakamura F, Kamura K, Yamada H, Watanabe Y, Tsuchiya S (2001) Influence of stream alteration on the abundance and distribution of benthic fish. Ecol Civ Eng 42(2):133–146 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  56. Waters TF (1995) Sediment in streams—sources, biological effects, and control. American Fisheries Society Monograph, 7, MarylandGoogle Scholar
  57. Wells RA, McNeil WJ (1970) Effect of quality of the spawning bed on the growth and development of pink salmon embryos and alevins. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Spatial Scientific Report Fisheries, p 616Google Scholar
  58. Whitlock D (1977) The Whitlock Vibert Box Handbook. Federation of Fly Fisherman, West YellowstoneGoogle Scholar
  59. Wickett WP (1954) The oxygen supply to salmon eggs in spawning beds. J Fish Res Board Can 11:933–953Google Scholar
  60. Wickett WP (1958) Review of certain environmental factors affection the production of pink and chum salmon. J Fish Res Board Can 15:1103–1126Google Scholar
  61. Wondzell SM, Swanson FJ (1996) Seasonal and storm dynamics of the hyporheic zone of a 4th-order mountain stream. I: hydrologic processes. J North Am Benthol Soc 15:3–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wood PJ, Armitage PD (1997) Biological effect of fine sediment in the lotic environment. Environ Manage 21(2):203–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yamada H, Nakamura F (2002) Effect of fine sediment deposition and channel works on periphyton biomass in the Makomanai River, northern Japan. River Res Appl 18:481–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Yamada H, Nakamura F, Watanabe Y, Murakami M, Nogami T (2005) Measuring hydraulic permeability in a streambed using the packer test. Hydrol Process 19:2507–2524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Yamada H, Kawaguchi Y, Edo K, Komiyama E (2008) Effects of fine sediment accumulation on the redd environment and the survival rate of eyed embryos of Sakhalin taimen (Hucho perryi) in mountain streams of northern Hokkaido. Ecol Civ Eng 11(1):29–40 (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Consortium of Landscape and Ecological Engineering and Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Informatics Laboratory, Graduate School of AgricultureHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  2. 2.Forest Ecosystem Management Laboratory, Graduate School of AgricultureHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

Personalised recommendations