Potentially, golf courses could act as wildlife refuges under adequate golf course management. We assessed the impacts of golf course managements on arthropod communities by analyzing arthropod community data. Arthropods were collected using a sweeping-net method from turf areas. Information of management applied in each golf course such as frequency of chemical use, length of grass was obtained by field measurements and also from interviews based on management records with green keepers. In total, 92 invertebrate families were collected. Of 44 frequently appearing families, the number of individuals in 22 arthropods families such as Delphacidae and Deltocephalidae were associated with some kind of course management features. Length of grass was the most influential factor to those families. After removing the effect of the grass length by regression analysis, herbicide affected six families. The effects of frequency of the use of fungicide and insecticide were not detected in this study.
Arthropod community Turf grass Grass length Pesticide Herbicide
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We would like to acknowledge the club managers and green keepers for access to their courses and for the information they made available for this study. We would also like to thank M. Nagano, M. Suto and M. Ozaki for helping to identify some of the invertebrate specimens. Thanks are also due to A. Bennett and N. Nakatani for comments on an earlier draft, to several anonymous reviewers for constructive comments on the manuscript.
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