Landscape and Ecological Engineering

, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp 187–198 | Cite as

Assessing the current status of urban forest resources in the context of Parco Nord, Milan, Italy

  • Giovanni SanesiEmail author
  • Raffaele Lafortezza
  • Pasquale A. Marziliano
  • Alessandro Ragazzi
  • Luigi Mariani


During the early part of the 1980s, a major project called Parco Nord was undertaken by the Lombardia Region to establish forest resources within an industrial area located in the northern part of the city of Milan. Since 1983, more than 60 ha of formerly industrial land has been converted into urban forest plantations, thus creating large patches of trees with the potential to sustain a wide range of functions and services. This paper describes an integrative study aimed to assess the current status of forest resources in Parco Nord. It focuses on the actions taken to determine whether forest resources significantly changed their status 20 years after their establishment, considering historical field data and records of management practices. Analyses have been conducted at both stand and tree level by collecting quantitative and qualitative parameters. Stand-level analysis gave a quantitative estimation of the response of species to ecological conditions and management practices while tree-level analysis provided evidence of species renovation after thinning operations.


Urban forestry Industrial sites Forest assessment Biotic and abiotic stressors Italy 



The authors wish to thank the staff of Parco Nord, Milano, Benedetto Selleri and all the people working for the project “Laboratori Boschi”, Milan.


  1. Agnew J, Shin M, Bettoni G (2002) City versus metropolis. The northern league in the Milan metropolitan area. Int J Urban Reg 26:266–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen RG, Pereira LS, Raes D, Smith M (1998) Evapotranspiration—guidelines for computing crop water requirements—FAO Irrigation and drainage paper 56. FAO—Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  3. Anselmi N, Mazzaglia A, Vannini A (2000) The role of endophytes in oak decline. In: Ragazzi A, Dellavalle I (eds) Decline of oak species in Italy, problems and perspectives. Accademia Italiana di Scienze Forestali, Firenze, pp 128–144Google Scholar
  4. Close RE, Nguyen PV, Kielbaso JJ (1996a) Urban vs. natural maple sugar growth: I. Stress symptoms and phenology in relation to site characteristics. J Arboric 22:144–150Google Scholar
  5. Close RE, Nguyen PV, Kielbaso JJ (1996b) Urban vs. natural maple sugar growth: II. Water relations. J Arboric 22:187–192Google Scholar
  6. De Sousa CA (2003) Turning brownfields into green space in the City of Toronto. Landsc Urban Plan 62:181–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Harris JA, Hobbs RJ, Higgs E, Aronson J (2006) Ecological restoration and global climate change. Restor Ecol 2:170–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hobbs RJ, Lambeck RJ (2002) Landscape management and restoration: new models for integrating science and action, In: Liu J, Taylor WW (eds) Integrating landscape ecology into natural resource management. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 412–430Google Scholar
  9. Iakovoglou V, Thompson J, Burras L, Kipper R (2001) Factors related to tree growth across urban-rural gradients in the Midwest, USA. Urban Ecos 5:71–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Konijnendijk CC (2003) A decade of urban forestry in Europe. For Policy Econ 5:173–186Google Scholar
  11. Kowalsky T (1991) Oak decline: I. Fungi associated with various disease symptoms on overground portions of middle-aged and old oak (Quercus robur). Eur J For Path 21:136–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mariani L, Cola G (2006) Agrometeorology and water needs of crops. Ital J Agron 3:587–602Google Scholar
  13. Nakamura A, Morimoto Y, Mizutani Y (2005) Adaptive management approach to increasing the diversity of 30-year-old planted forest in an urban area of Japan. Landsc Urban Plan 70:291–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nam-choon K (2005) Ecological restoration and revegetation works in Korea. Landsc Ecol Eng 1:77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nowak DJ (1993) Atmosferic carbon reduction bu urban trees. J Environ Manage 37(3):207–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nowak DJ, Crane DE, Stevens JC (2006) Air pollution removal by urban trees and shrubs in the United States. Urban For Urban Green 4(3–4):115–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pettenella D (1980) Progetto forestale del Parco Nord Milano. Consorzio Parco Nord, MilanoGoogle Scholar
  18. Picot X (2004) Thermal comfort in urban spaces: impact of vegetation growth. Case study: Piazza della Scienza, Milan, Italy. Energy Buildings 36:329–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pignatti S (1998) Woods of Italy sinecology and biodiversity (in Italian). UTET, TorinoGoogle Scholar
  20. Piussi P (1994) Selvicoltura generale. Silviculture (in Italian). UTET, TorinoGoogle Scholar
  21. Quigley MF (2002) Franklin Park: 150 years of changing design, disturbance, and impact on tree growth. Urban Ecos 6:223–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Quigley MF (2004) Street trees and rural conspecifics: will long-lived trees reach full size in urban conditions? Urban Ecos 7:29–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ragazzi A (2004) Endophytism: knowns and unknowns of an age-old phenomenon. In: Ragazzi A, Moricca S, Dellavalle I (eds) Endophytism in forest trees. Accademia Italiana di Scienze Forestali, Firenze, pp 17–32Google Scholar
  24. Ragazzi A, Moricca S, Capretti P, Dellavalle I, Mancini F, Turco E (2001) Endophytic fungi in Quercus cerris: isolation frequency in ralation to phenological phase, tree health and the organ affected. Phytopathol Mediterr 40:165–171Google Scholar
  25. Rhoades RW, Stipes RJ (1999) Growth of trees on the Virginia Tech Campus in response to various factors. J Arboric 9:1–6Google Scholar
  26. Ruiz-Jaén MC, Aide TM (2006) An integrated approach for measuring urban forest restoration success. Urban For Urban Green 2:55–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rydberg D, Falck J, (2000) Urban forestry in Sweden from a silvicultural perspective: a review. Landsc Urban Plan 47:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sæbo A, Benedikz T, Randrup TB (2003) Selection of trees for urban forestry in the Nordic countries. Urban For Urban Green 2:101–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sanesi G, Lafortezza R, Bonnes M, Carrus G (2006) Comparison of two different approaches for assessing the psychological and social dimension of green spaces. Urban For Urban Green 5:121–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schueltz JP (1990) Sylviculture 1. Principes d’education des forest. Presses politechniques et universitaires romandes, LausanneGoogle Scholar
  31. Trono A, Zerbi MC (2003) Milan: the city of constant renewal. GeoJournal 58:65–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Turco E, Marianelli L, Vizzuso C, Ragazzi A, Gini R, Selleri B, Tucci R (2006) First report of Botryosphaeria dothidea on sycamore, red oak and English oak in northwestern Italy. Plant Dis Rep 90(8):1106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Werner PC, Gerstengarbe FW, Fraedrich K, Oesterle K (2000) Recent climate change in the North Atlantic/European sector. Int J Climatol 20(5):463–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yokohari M, Amati M (2005) Nature in the city, city in the nature: case studies of the restoration of urban naturae in Tokyo, Japan and Toronto, Canada. Landsc Ecol Eng 1:53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yu C, Hien WN (2006) Thermal benefits of city parks. Energy Buildings 38:105–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Consortium of Landscape and Ecological Engineering and Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanni Sanesi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Raffaele Lafortezza
    • 1
  • Pasquale A. Marziliano
    • 2
  • Alessandro Ragazzi
    • 3
  • Luigi Mariani
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Scienze delle Produzioni VegetaliUniversity of BariBariItaly
  2. 2.Department of Gestione dei Sistemi Agrari e ForestaliUniversity of Reggio CalabriaCatanzaroItaly
  3. 3.Department of Biotecnologie AgrarieUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly
  4. 4.Department of Produzione VegetaleUniversity of MilanMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations