In Situ Measurement of Phase Boundary Kinetics during Initial Lithiation of Crystalline Silicon through Picosecond Ultrasonics
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Studying the kinetics of phase transformation and phase boundary propagation during initial lithiation of silicon electrodes in lithium ion batteries is relevant to understanding their performance. Such studies are usually challenging due to the difficulties in measuring the phase boundary velocity in the interior of the sample. Here we introduce a non-invasive, in situ method to measure the progression of the phase boundary in a planar specimen geometry while maintaining well-controlled lithium flux and potential. We developed an apparatus integrating an electrochemical cell with picosecond ultrasonics to probe the propagating phase boundary in real time. Phase propagation during initial lithiation of crystalline silicon, which is an example of a high capacity anode, is investigated. The primary objective of this manuscript is to report on the experimental technique development and some preliminary results. For lithiation normal to the (100) plane, we observe the phase boundary velocity to be approximately 12 pm/s and x to be 3.73 in LixSi under galvanostatic lithiation with a current density of 40 μA/cm2. The growth rate of the lithiated phase and the reaction rate coefficient are examined using a Deal-Grove type model.
KeywordsPicosecond ultrasonics In situ Phase boundary propagation Crystalline silicon Lithium ion battery
This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy EPSCoR Implementation award (grant # DE-SC0007074).
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