Experimental Mechanics

, Volume 57, Issue 4, pp 581–591 | Cite as

Kinematic Field Measurements During Orthogonal Cutting Tests via DIC with Double-frame Camera and Pulsed Laser Lighting

  • T. Baizeau
  • S. Campocasso
  • G. Fromentin
  • R. Besnard


The measurement of machined-part strain fields induced by the cutting process remains a challenge because of the presence of highly intensive and localised strains. In this study, a high-speed double-frame imaging device with pulsed laser lighting is used in order to obtain sharp and highly resolved images during orthogonal cutting tests performed in an aluminium alloy. The displacement fields are then measured using a global Q4–digital-image-correlation (DIC) method and several strategies, facilitating calculation of the total displacements due to the cut, along with the residual strains in the machined part. Numerical procedures are developed to manage the removed material that disturbs the DIC. An automatic primary shear angle detection procedure using DIC is also proposed. Five different markings, which are produced via chemical etching and micro blasting, are applied to the observed surfaces. Their effects on the kinematic fields and the uncertainties are then studied. Three surface parameters are proposed as indicators for determining the surface preparation suitability for the DIC. The repeatability of the kinematic fields induced during the cutting process is studied, because of the ease with which testing can be performed. Finally, the plastically deformed layer engendered by the cutting process is measured using the calculated residual strains.


Machining Orthogonal cutting Field measurement Digital image correlation High-speed imaging 



The authors acknowledge the Institut Carnot ARTS for their financial support through the UsiCorSurf project. They also gratefully thank ADEME and NTN-SNR for their support through the WindProcess project.


  1. 1.
    Moussaoui K, Mousseigne M, Senatore J, Chieragatti R (2015) The effect of roughness and residual stresses on fatigue life time of an alloy of titanium. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 78(1):557–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gravier J, Vignal V, Bissey-Breton S (2012) Influence of residual stress, surface roughness and crystallographic texture induced by machining on the corrosion behaviour of copper in salt-fog atmosphere. Corros Sci 61:162–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Denkena B, Grove T, Dittrich MA, Niederwestberg D, Lahres M (2015) Inverse determination of constitutive equations and cutting force modelling for complex tools using Oxley’s predictive machining theory. Procedia CIRP 31:405–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Calamaz M, Coupard D, Girot F (2008) A new material model for 2d numerical simulation of serrated chip formation when machining titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 48(3-4):275–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mabrouki T, Girardin F, Asad M, Rigal JF (2008) Numerical and experimental study of dry cutting for an aeronautic aluminium alloy (A2024-T351). Int J Mach Tools Manuf 48(11):1187–1197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen G, Li J, He Y, Ren C (2014) A new approach to the determination of plastic flow stress and failure initiation strain for aluminum alloys cutting process. Comput Mater Sci 95:568–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wright PK, Horne JG, Tabors D (1979) Boundary conditions at the chip-tool interface in machning: comparison between seizure and sliding friction. Wear 54:371–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Poulachon G, Moisan A (2000) Hard turning: Chip formation mechanisms and metallurgical aspects. J Manuf Sci Eng 122(3):406–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Childs THC (1971) A new visio-plasticity technique and a study of curly chip formation. Int J Mech Sci 13(4):373–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sutter G (2005) Chip geometries during high-speed machining for orthogonal cutting conditions. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 45(6):719–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pujana J, Arrazola PJ, Villar JA (2008) In-process high-speed photography applied to orthogonal turning. J Mater Process Technol 202(1-3):475–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hijazi A, Madhavan V (2008) A novel ultra-high speed camera for digital image processing applications. Meas Sci Technol 19(8):085503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Arriola I, Whitenton E, Heigel J, Arrazola PJ (2011) Relationship between machinability index and in-process parameters during orthogonal cutting of steels. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 60(1):93–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    List G, Sutter G, Bi XF, Molinari A, Bouthiche A (2013) Strain, strain rate and velocity fields determination at very high cutting speed. J Mater Process Technol 213(5):693–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pottier T, Germain G, Calamaz M, Morel A, Coupard D (2014) Sub-millimeter measurement of finite strains at cutting tool tip vicinity. Exp Mech 54:1031–1042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sutton MA, Wolters WJ, Peters WH, Ranson WF, McNeill SR (1983) Determination of displacements using an improved digital correlation method. Image Vis Comput 1(3):133–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sutton MA, Orteu JJ, Schreier HW (2009) 5 Digital image correlation (DIC), Image Correlation for Shape, Motion and Deformation Measurements: Basic Concepts, Theory and Applications. Springer, US, pp 81–118Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bornert M, Hild F, Orteu JJ, Roux S (2012) 6 Digital Image Correlation. Wiley, pp 157–190. doi: 10.1002/9781118578469.ch6
  19. 19.
    Besnard G, Hild F, Roux S (2006) Finite-Element displacement fields analysis from digital images: Application to Portevin - Le Chatelier̂ bands. Exp Mech 46(6):789–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hild F, Roux S (2012) Comparison of local and global approaches to digital image correlation. Exp Mech 52(9):1503–1519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ghadbeigi H, Bradbury SR, Pinna C, Yates JR (2008) Determination of micro-scale plastic strain caused by orthogonal cutting. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 48(2):228–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ghadbeigi H, Pinna C, Celotto S (2012) Quantitative strain analysis of the large deformation at the scale of microstructure: Comparison between digital image correlation and microgrid techniques. Exp Mech 52(9):1483–1492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hanson RK (1988) Planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging. J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transf 40(3):343–362. special Issue on Quantitative Spectroscopy and Laser DiagnosticsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Peterson PD, Mortensen KS, Idar DJ, Asay BW, Funk DJ (2001) Strain field formation in plastic bonded explosives under compressional punch loading. J Mater Sci 36(6):1395–1400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhang D, Zhang XM, Xu WJ, Ding H (2016) Stress field analysis in orthogonal cutting process using digital image correlation technique. J Manuf Sci Eng. doi: 10.1115/1.4033928
  26. 26.
    Baizeau T, Campocasso S, Fromentin G, Rossi F, Poulachon G (2015) Effect of rake angle on strain field during orthogonal cutting of hardened steel with c-BN tools. Procedia CIRP 31:166–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Outeiro JC, Campocasso S, Denguir LA, Fromentin G, Vignal V, Poulachon G (2015) Experimental and numerical assessment of subsurface plastic deformation induced by OFHC copper machining. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 64(1):53–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Oxley PLB (1962) Shear angle solutions in orthogonal machining. Int J Mach Tool Des Res 2(3):219–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lee E, Shaffer B (1951) The theory of plasticity applied to a problem of machining. J Appl Mech 18(4):405–413Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Baizeau T, Campocasso S, Rossi F, Poulachon G, Hild F (2016) Cutting force sensor based on digital image correlation for segmented chip formation analysis. J Mater Process Technol. doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2016.07.016
  31. 31.
    Buchkremer S, Klocke F, Lung D (2014) Analytical study on the relationship between chip geometry and equivalent strain distribution on the free surface of chips in metal cutting. Int J Mech Sci 85:88–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Experimental Mechanics 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Baizeau
    • 1
  • S. Campocasso
    • 1
    • 2
  • G. Fromentin
    • 1
  • R. Besnard
    • 2
  1. 1.Arts et Metiers ParisTech, LaBoMaP, Rue porte de ParisClunyFrance
  2. 2.CEA, DAM, ValducIs-sur-TilleFrance

Personalised recommendations