Experimental Mechanics

, Volume 55, Issue 7, pp 1301–1315 | Cite as

Assessment of Stresses in Float and Tempered Glass Using Eigenstrains

  • B. A. Balan
  • M. Achintha


Residual stress data determined using the contour method has been used to determine the misfit-strains (i.e., eigenstrains) existent in float glass. Although the uncertainty associated with the results of the contour method analysis may be high the results agree with the residual stress profiles measured using scattered-light-polariscope experiments. The relationship between the eigenstrains and the thickness of glass has been investigated and the results have been validated using scattered-light-polariscopic experiments. The paper shows that the eigenstrain distribution depends on the differential cooling takes place during the manufacturing process. Once the underlying eigenstrain distribution in a given float glass product has been determined this can be used to devise the eigenstrain distribution in tempered glass. It is also shown that eigenstrain analysis can be implemented in finite element models to predict structural response of glass structures thereby to ensure efficient, safe and reliable designs.


Contour method Eigenstrain Finite element Glass Residual stress 



Funding from the University of Southampton and the Institution of Structural Engineers Research Award (2012) are greatly acknowledged. Dr Mauro Overend (University of Cambridge, UK) is acknowledged for providing access to SCALP-05 equipment.


  1. 1.
    Balan BA, Achintha M (2014) Hybrid contour method/eigenstrain model for predicting residual stress in glass. Proc. 5th Int. Conf. Comp. Methods, 400 ID, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Withers PJ (2007) Residual stress and its role in failure. Rep Prog Phys 70:2211–2264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    IStructE (2014) Structural use of glass in buildings, 2nd edn. Inst. Structural Engineers, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    SCALP Instruction Manual, ver 5.0, GlassStress LtdGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aben H, Anton J, Errapart A (2008) Modern photoelasticity for residual stress measurement in glass. Strain 44(1):40–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nielsen JH (2009) Tempered glass – bolted connections and related problems. PhD, Technical University of DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Prime MB (2001) Cross-sectional mapping of residual stresses by measuring the surface contour after a cut. J Eng Mater Technol 123:162–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hosseinzadeh F, Kowal J, Bouchard PJ (2014) Towards good practice guidelines for the contour method of residual stress measurement. J Eng. doi: 10.1049/joe.2014.0134 Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Prime MB, DeWald AT, Hill MR, Clausen B, Tran M (2014) Forensic determination of residual stresses and Ki from fracture surface mismatch. J Eng Frac Mech 116:158–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    XYRIS4000 Confocal Laser 4.0. TaicannGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alicona Infinite Focus 2.1.5 IFM. user manual, Alicona imaging GmbhGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gardon R, Narayanaswamy O (1970) Stress and volume relaxation in annealing flat glass. J Am Ceram Soc 55(380)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    ABAQUS/Standard, 6.9-3 ed., SimuliaGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Olson MD, DeWald AT, Prime MB, Hill MR (2015) Estimation of uncertainty for contour method residual stress measurements. Exp Mech 55:577–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Korsunsky AM (2009) Eigenstrain analysis of residual strains and stresses. J Strain Anal Eng Des 44:29–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Achintha M, Nowell D (2011) Eigenstrain modelling of residual stresses generated by laser shock peening. J Mater Process Technol 211:1091–1101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mason JC, Handscomb DC (2003) Chebyshev polynomials. Chapman Hall/CRC, Boca RatonMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zaccaria M, Overend M (2014) The mechanical performances of bi-treated glass. Proc. Challenging Glass 4 & COST Action TU0905 Final Conf., SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mocibob D, Belis J, Crisinel M, Lebet JP (2009) Stress distribution at the load introduction point glass plates subjected to compression. Proc. Int. Ass. Shell Spatial Struct, ValenciaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Experimental Mechanics 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering and EnvironmentUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK

Personalised recommendations