A comprehensive series of experiments were conducted to study the dynamic response of rectangular Hastelloy X plates at room and elevated temperatures when subjected to shock wave loading. A shock tube apparatus, capable of testing materials at temperatures up to 900 °C, was developed and utilized to generate the shock loading. Propane gas was used as the heating source to effectively provide an extreme thermal environment. The heating system is both robust and capable of providing uniform heating during shock loading. A cooling system was also implemented to prevent the shock tube from reaching high temperatures. High-speed photography coupled with the optical technique of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) was used to obtain the real-time 3D deformation of the Hastelloy X plates under shock wave loading. To eliminate the influence of thermal radiation at high temperatures, the DIC technique was used in conjunction with bandpass optical filters and a high-intensity light source to obtain the full-field deformation. In addition, a high-speed camera was utilized to record the side-view deformation images and this information was used to validate the data obtained from the high temperature 3D stereovision DIC technique. The results showed that uniform heating of the specimen was consistently achieved with the designed heating system. For the same applied incident pressure, the highest impulse was imparted to the specimen at room temperature. As a consequence of temperature-dependent material properties, the specimen demonstrated an increasing trend in back-face (nozzle side) deflection and in-plane strain with increasing temperature.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Haynes I (2012) http://www.haynesintl.com/pdf/h3009.pdf
Hong HU, Kim IS, Choi BG, Jeong HW, Jo CY (2008) Effects of temperature and strain range on fatigue cracking behavior in Hastelloy X. Mater Lett 62(28):4351–4353
Kondo Y, Fukaya K, Kunitomi K, Miyamoto Y (1988) Tensile and impact properties changes of Hastelloy X after exposure in high-temperature helium environment. Metall Mater Trans A 19(5):1269–1275
Lai G (1978) An investigation of the thermal stability of a commercial Ni-Cr-Fe-Mo alloy (Hastelloy alloy X). Metall Mater Trans A 9(6):827–833
Zhao JC, Larsen M, Ravikumar V (2000) Phase precipitation and time-temperature-transformation diagram of Hastelloy X. Mater Sci Eng, A 293(1–2):112–119
Aghaie-Khafri M, Golarzi N (2008) Forming behavior and workability of Hastelloy X superalloy during hot deformation. Mater Sci Eng, A 486(1–2):641–647
Abotula S, Shukla A, Chona R (2011) Dynamic constitutive behavior of Hastelloy X under thermo-mechanical loads. J Mater Sci 46(14):4971–4979
Nurick GN, Olson MD, Fagnan JR, Levin A (1995) Deformation and tearing of blast-loaded stiffened square plates. Int J Impact Eng 16(2):273–291
Nurick GN, Shave GC (1996) The deformation and tearing of thin square plates subjected to impulsive loads - An experimental study. Int J Impact Eng 18(1):99–116
Teeling-Smith RG, Nurick GN (1991) The deformation and tearing of thin circular plates subjected to impulsive loads. Int J Impact Eng 11(1):77–91
Wierzbicki T, Nurick GN (1996) Large deformation of thin plates under localised impulsive loading. Int J Impact Eng 18(7–8):899–918
Menkes S, Opat H (1973) Broken beams. Exp Mech 13(11):480–486
Gupta S, Shukla A (2012) Blast performance of marine foam core sandwich composites at extreme temperatures. Exp Mech 52(9):1521–1534
Johnson GR, Cook WH (1983) A constitutive model and data for metals subjected to large strains, high strain rates and high temperatures. Proceedings of seventh international symposium on ballistics, The Hague: 541–547
Gardner N, Wang E, Kumar P, Shukla A (2012) Blast mitigation in a sandwich composite using graded core and polyurea interlayer. Exp Mech 52(2):119–133
Tekalur SA, Shukla A, Shivakumar K (2008) Blast resistance of polyurea based layered composite materials. Compos Struct 84(3):271–281
Wang E, Gardner N, Shukla A (2009) The blast resistance of sandwich composites with stepwise graded cores. Int J Solids Struct 46:3492–3502
Luo PF, Chao YJ, Sutton MA, Peters WH III (1993) Accurate measurement of three-dimensional deformations in deformable and rigid bodies using computer vision. Exp Mech 33(2):123–132
Sutton MA, Orteu J-J, Schreier H (2009) Image correlation for shape, motion and deformation measurements
Pan B, Wu D, Xia Y (2010) High-temperature deformation field measurement by combining transient aerodynamic heating simulation system and reliability-guided digital image correlation. Opt Laser Eng 48(9):841–848
Bing P, Hui-min X, Tao H, Asundi A (2009) Measurement of coefficient of thermal expansion of films using digital image correlation method. Polym Test 28(1):75–83
De Strycker M, Schueremans L, Van Paepegem W, Debruyne D (2010) Measuring the thermal expansion coefficient of tubular steel specimens with digital image correlation techniques. Opt Laser Eng 48(10):978–986
Li N, Sutton M, Li X, Schreier H (2008) Full-field thermal deformation measurements in a scanning electron microscope by 2D Digital Image Correlation. Exp Mech 48(5):635–646
Grant BMB, Stone HJ, Withers PJ, Preuss M (2009) High-temperature strain field measurement using digital image correlation. J Strain Anal Eng Des 44(4):263–271
Pan B, Wu D, Wang Z, Xia Y (2011) High-temperature digital image correlation method for full-field deformation measurement at 1200 °C. Meas Sci Technol 22(1):11
Wang E, Wright J, Shukla A (2011) Analytical and experimental study on the fluid structure interaction during air blast loading. J Appl Phys 110(11):114901–114912
Qiu X, Deshpande VS, Fleck NA (2011) Dynamic response of a clamped circular sandwich plate subject to shock loading. J Appl Mech 71(5):637–645
Wang E, Shukla A (2010) Analytical and experimental evaluation of energies during shock wave loading. Int J Impact Eng 37(12):1188–1196
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Grant No. FA9550-13-1-0037. The helpful discussions during the course of this study with Mr. Kenneth B. Leger of the Structural Validation Branch in the Aerospace Systems Directorate at AFRL are gratefully acknowledged.
About this article
Cite this article
Abotula, S., Heeder, N., Chona, R. et al. Dynamic Thermo-mechanical Response of Hastelloy X to Shock Wave Loading. Exp Mech 54, 279–291 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11340-013-9796-4
- Hastelloy X
- Thermo-mechanical loading
- Extreme environments
- Shock tube
- High temperature 3D DIC