Diffraction Assisted Image Correlation: A Novel Method for Measuring Three-Dimensional Deformation using Two-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation
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Digital Image Correlation (DIC) provides a full-field non-contact optical method for accurate deformation measurement of materials, devices and structures. The measurement of three-dimensional (3D) deformation using DIC in general requires imaging with two cameras and a 3D-DIC code. In the present work, a new experimental technique, namely, Diffraction Assisted Image Correlation (DAIC) for 3D displacement measurement using a single camera and 2D-DIC algorithm is presented. A transmission diffraction grating is placed between the specimen and the camera, resulting in multiple images which are then used to obtain apparent in-plane displacements using 2D-DIC. The true in-plane and out-of-plane displacements of the specimen are obtained from the apparent in-plane displacements and the diffraction angle of the grating. The validity and accuracy of the DAIC method are demonstrated through 3D displacement measurement of a small thin membrane. This technique provides new avenues for performing 3D deformation measurements at small length scales and/or dynamic loading conditions.